Further, the alluvial bed of Ghaggar River is characterised by a clayey surface of almost flat, featureless plain. It is bordered in the north and west by Haryana Plain and in the south along the sand dune tract, is a manifestation of the misfit nature of the present day Ghaggar. Water logging is a serious problem in many parts of this flat surface of impervious clay of great thickness. At places, swamps support a high density of tall grass. The third tract that is the sand dune tract covers the southern most part of Sirsa District. The area is northward extension of the sand dunes of Hisar District and Ganganagar Districtof Rajasthan. These dunes are locally called 'tibbas'. All tibbas are broad based transverse ridges, some more than 3 kms long without a break. Linear to complex ridges, short to fairly long but narrow at the crests, and generally 2 to 5 meters high are also present throughout the sandy stretch of the land. These are some of the important features constituting the geography of Sirsa District.
The climate of Sirsa District is relatively dry and has extreme temperature with scanty rainfall. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from November to March is followed by the summer season which lasts up to the end of June. The period from July to the mid of September and from mid September to October constitute the south west monsoon and post-monsoon seasons respectively. The average annual rainfall in the district is 32 mm to 53 mm. The rainfall in Sirsa District increases generally from west to east. About 72 percent of the annual normal rainfall in the district is received during the short south east monsoon period, July to September, July and August being the rainiest months. The district receives a significant amount of rainfall in the month of June, mostly in the form of thunder showers. In the rest of the year, there is very little rainfall. On an average there are 20 rainy days in a year in the district.
There is a rapid increase of temperature after February. The mean daily maximum temperature during May and June which is the hottest period varies from 41.5 degree Celsius to 46.7 degree Celsius. On individual days the maximum temperature during the summer season may increase up to about 49 degree Celsius. With the advance of the monsoon season into the district, by about the end of June, there is an appreciable drop in the day temperature and the weather becomes cooler during the day time, but the nights are warmer than those during the summer season. With the added moisture in the monsoon air, the nights are often uncomfortable. The decrease in temperature is rapid after October and drop in temperature after nightfall is particularly trying. January is generally the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at 21 degree Celsius and the mean daily minimum temperature at around 5 degree Celsius. Relative humidity in the mornings is generally high during the monsoon season and during the period in between December to February it is usually 70 percent or more. Humidity is comparatively less during the rest of the year, the driest part being the summer season with the relative humidity being about 30 percent in the afternoons.
During the monsoon season, the sky is moderately or heavily clouded. In the rest of the year, the sky is generally clear or lightly clouded. Cloudy sky prevails for brief spell of a day or two in association with passing western disturbances in the cold season. Winds are generally light in the district with some strengthening in force during the late summer and monsoon seasons. During the south-west monsoon season while winds from south-west or west are more common, easterlies and south-easterlies also blow on some days. In the post monsoon and winter season while south-westerly or westerly winds are more common in the mornings, north-westerly winds are predominant in the afternoons. In summer, winds are more common from the west or south-west in the mornings. In the afternoons they are mostly from directions between west and north-west.
Geography of Sirsa District also consists of a special weather phenomenon. Some of the depressions which originate in Bay of Bengal in the south-west monsoon season, and which move across the central parts of the country reach the district during the last stages of activity and cause wide spread rain before dispersing. An occasional post-monsoon storm or depression also affects the district. Thunder storms occur throughout the year but the highest is during the monsoon season. Dust storms occur often during the hot season. Moreover, occasional fogs affect the district in the cold season.
(Last Updated on : 12-02-2014)
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