(Last Updated on : 03-04-2014)
Geography of Ghazipur District includes general slope from north-west to south-west. This being the direction generally taken by subsidiary drainage lines though the Ganga River
itself leaves the district in higher latitude than at its point of entry, while north-easterly course of Karamnasa River points to the existence of a reversed slope on the south bank of the Ganga. The soil and the general topography of Ghazipur district depends directly on the drainage lines.
Ghazipur District is situated in eastern part of Uttar Pradesh; hence the climate of Ghazipur is not very hot or cold. The coldest months here are December-January and the hottest months are May-June. The temperature varies from 5 degree Celsius to 17 degree Celsius in winters and 30 degree Celsius to 42 degree Celsius in summers. The south-west monsoon advances and covers the district around June-end and rainy season begins and lasts till October. The average annual rainfall in Ghazipur District varies between 800 mm to 1200 mm. Further, during July and September the relative humidity is high being over 70 percent. During the Post-Monsoon and winter season the humidity is high in the morning and in summer season, relative humidity become very low almost less than 25 percent.
Ghazipur District can be divided in three physical divisions - northern uplands, central lowlands and southern uplands. The northern uplands which comprise the northern portion of Ganga, with exception of parts of Saidpur and Ghazipur and the greater portion of Muhammadabad mostly resemble the ordinary uplands of Gangetic plain. The higher levels are sandy and on the slopes in and from banks of streams the soils become fertile loam but in the depression this merges into stiff clay. The light sandy soil is generally known as Balua, the loam as Doras and clay as Matiyar. In most parts of the uplands there is a large amount of kankar in subsoil. The alluvial lowlands, generally known as terai, comprise a small portion of Saidpur and Ghazipur
, and Zamania and Muhammadabad tehsil. Here the soil varies from the sand found on the banks of Ganga to fine loam deposits left by rivers and the characteristic dark soil. The central portion of Zamania constitutes the southern uplands of the district which have the ordinary loam and clay soils of the northern uplands. There is a stretch of fertile Karail on the north of Karamnasa River from the boundary of Varanasi
on the west of village Dewal on the east.
Several perennial rivers traverse through the district. The main rivers are River Ganga, Gomti River
, Beson, Magai, Bhaisai, Tons River
and Karamnasa River. Forest area in Ghazipur District is very small. All the forests in the district are under the control of Gram Sabha. The trees which are found in these forests are of the ordinary varieties common to entire Gangetic plain. As the district lacks dense and extensive forests the number of wild animals and variety of species are small. The birds of the district are the same as those of adjoining district.