Topography of Chandrapur district can be divided into two parts on the basis of district physiographic features.
1. The plain and the fertile region lying in the river valleys of the Wardha river , the Penganga river and the Wainganga river:
The widely spread and flat terrain exhibits mostly rolling topography with residual knolls of the hills in the southern portion while in the northern portion, that is in the Brahmapuri tahsil, fairly wide flood and alluvial plains covered with fertile loams are observed. The flat terrain of Chandrapur district on the whole lies generally between 250 m above sea level. In the Penganga valley, flat terrain covers very little area in the south western portion of the district. The area occupied by the Penganga basin in the south-western parts of the district in Rajura and Chandur tahsils exhibits mostly hilly topography. The hills are known as Gadchandur and Manikgarh hills, and the altitude in general rises to 500m above mean sea level.
2. The upland hilly region:
The upland hilly region lies between the Wardha and the Wainganga rivers comprising parts of Warora, Chandrapur and mojor part of Brahmapuri tahsils. It has sandy soil. The mills in Wardha, Brahmapuri and Brahmapuri district are low altitude hills called 'Chimur-Perjagarh-Mul hills'. The altitude of these hills is on average 300 m. above mean sea level.
As a result of the geographical location and physical features, the climate of the district can be classified as tropical hot climate with a high range of temperature throughout year. There are two main seasons in the district- very hot summer and moderate winter. The summer months are very hot and prolonged while winter is short and mild. The monsoon season commences immediately after summer and continues till late September. A lot of rainfall is brought by the south-west monsoons and there is no drought-prone area in the district. The temperature starts decreasing from the month of October. December is the coldest month when mean maximum temperature is around 28.2 degree Celsius, and mean minimum is 11.6 degree Celsius. The daily mean temperature starts rising from the month of February and may is the peak summer month when mean maximum temperature goes up to 43 degree Celsius and minimum temperature is 28 degree Celsius to 29 degree Celsius. In severe heat condition temperature rises up to 46 degree Celsius. The average annual rainfall is about 1420 mm. The eastern part receives more rainfall than the west. Average no of rainy days is between 60 to 65 throughout the district. The relative humidity is very high during monsoon season, when it exceeds 70 percent, but after monsoon season it falls down rapidly and in summer it is only 20 percent. The prominent wind direction is from south to north. In summer the wind direction is from east to and south and monsoon from south to east. During winter, the wind direction changes from north to east.
The soils of Chandrapur district are of various types. Each type covers a well-defined tract which displays cropping pattern of totally different level. The soils occurring in the Wardha and the Wainganga valleys are generally most fertile. The soil of the district is well defined and conductive for growing crops of various kinds. The most fertile soils are found in the Wardha district and Wainganga valleys. The soil conditions along Wardha-Painganga valleys are rich with black regur loams and clay loams along the river bed. These soils locally known as kali soils are very productive and suitable for rabi crops due to high moisture retention capacity. However water logging is very common during monsoon and it is therefore not suitable for kharif crops.
The vegetation of the district is characterized as southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest where teak is the dominant species. Other associated species are ain, bamboo, bijja, dhada, haldu, semal, tendu etc. depending upon the physiographic features. Jamun tree, Mango tree and Arjun tree are found in moist areas. The slopes of the hills have poor and low density vegetation. The plains of the tract have luxuriant forest.
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