History of Garhwa District
The early history of Garhwa District depends on the history of Palamau district. The district consisted mostly of forest zones. The territory seldom attracted the attention of invading armies. In the past the area was probably inhabited by tribal people. It is believed that the three aboriginal races namely the Kharwar Tribe, the Oraon Tribe and Chero Tribe practically reigned over this region. Chero Tribe reigned over Garhwa for nearly 200 years. Further, according to historical accounts, during the Sepoy Mutiny 1857, Palamau district was severely affected. At that time Garhwa was the main seat of Movement. Garhwa also played also a significant role in freedom movement of the country.
Geography of Garhwa District
Geography of Garhwa District spreads over widely scattered hills. The average elevation of this district is about 1200 feet above the mean sea level. There are low lands in northern and western parts of the district which is suitable for agricultural purposes. The general line of drainage is from south to north towards the Koyal River and Son River. Koyal forms the eastern boundary and Son forms northern boundary of the district. Other important rivers of the district are Danro River, Sarsatiya River, Tahale River, Annaraj River, Urea River, Bai Banki River, Bellaiti River, Pando River, Biraha River and Sapahi River. Other notable river is Kanhar River which forms south eastern boundary of the district for about 80 km. Due to its geographical formation Garhwa District is rich in water resources.
In Garhwa district more than 40 per cent area of the total land is under forests. The dense tropical forests are great sources of the revenue. Many of the villages of this district lie in thick forest area. Garhwa District lies partially under the rain shadow area. Although yearly average rainfall is sufficient for agriculture work but unequal distribution of seasonal rain affects the main crops badly. The climate of this district is dry and bracing. From the onset of the Monsoon by the middle of June, rainfall rapidly increases reaching the peak level in August. The annual variation of rainfall is not much. December and January are the coolest months. By March temperature begins to rise steadily. In May and early part of June the maximum temperature can be as high as 47 degree Celsius on individual days. Humidity is generally normal in this district, except in Monsoon months. The district is rich in mineral resources. Deposits of Graphite, China clay and Granite are also available in this district.
Demography of Garhwa District
Garhwa District is primarily rural and most of the population resides in villages. Tribal population of the district still lives in forest zones. The rate of urbanization has been extremely slow due to rural economy based on agriculture. According to the Population Census in the year 2011, Garhwa District had population of 1,322,387 of which male and female were 683,984 and 638,403 respectively. The population of Garhwa District constituted 4.01 percent of total population of Jharkhand. The Population Census of India in the year 2011 shows that the population density of Garhwa district is 327 people per sq. km. The average literacy rate of Garhwa in 2011 was 62.18 percent. If things are looked out at gender wise, the male and female literacy rates were 74.00 percent and 49.43 percent respectively. The total literates in Garhwa District were 677,005 of which male and female were 417,848 and 259,074 respectively. Education in Garhwa District
Most of the educational institutions in Garhwa District have been opened after independence of the country. There are number of private and government educational institution in the district. There are 476 primary school, 145 middle schools and 19 high schools in this district. Garhwa District has two colleges for higher education but both are not well established. Government is also planning to open a poly-technique college in Garhwa
Economy of Garhwa District
Socio-economic life of the people of the district is rural but now changing fast due to impact of the present day socio-economic changes. Garhwa is no longer the district of hills forest and diseases. Economy of Garhwa District is mainly dependent on agriculture. Due to minor and major irrigational work done in recent years by the government the agricultural work has developed to a large extent in the district. The district is rich in minerals, so commercial exploitation of minerals is done here. Though this district is rich in minerals, there is no any heavy industry in the district. There are some small scale cottage industries based on local needs. There is no agricultural based industry in public or private sector.
Tourism in Garhwa District
There are so many famous and interesting places of historical and religious values in Garhwa District. Ketar in Bhawanathpur block is famous for temple of "Goddess Bhagawati". Radha Krishna Mandir of Nagar-Untari is another famous tourism spot. Sukhaldari on the bank of river Kanahar in Dhuraki block is a beautiful waterfall. Parasdiha fall in Bhawanathpur block and Gursandhu fall in Ranka block is also an attractive sightseeing option. Raja Pahari famous for its natural beauty and here is a big temple of Lord Shiva. Saruat Pahar is said to be the second highest peak in this region. It is noted for its natural beauty due to its plain lands where tiny village of Korba tribe is situated. Garhwa District is well connected through roadways and railways. Daily bus services are available from Ranchi and major districts of Jharkhand, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.