Malda district is located in the state of West Bengal, between the latitude and longitude figures of 24 degrees 40 minutes north to 25 degrees 32 minutes North and 88 degrees 28 minutes east to 87 degrees 45 minutes east respectively. It is surrounded by Bangladesh and South Dinajpur district in the east, Santal Parganas of Jharkand state in the west, North Dinajpur district in the north and Murshidabad in the south. The district consists of two sub divisions, Sadar and Chanchal. Englishbazaar is the headquarters station of the district as well as the Sadar subdivision.
The climate of the district is rather extreme- very hot and sultry during summer season, with a lot of rain and moisture in the air throughout the year. There are four main seasons in the year. Winter starts from about the middle of November and continues till the end of February. The period from March to May is the summer season. The rainy season starts in June with the coming of south - west monsoons and continues till the middle of September. October and the first half of November constitutes the post monsoons season. Average rainfall in the district is about 2453.1mm. The maximum precipitation occurs during the period from June to September.
The district consists mainly of low-lying plains, sloping towards the south with undulating areas on the northeast. The Mahananda River divides the district into two regions.
The eastern region, consisting mainly of old alluvial and relatively unfertile soil, is commonly known as "rind" The western region is further subdivided by the river Kalindri into two areas, the northern area is known as 'Tal' - it is low lying and vulnerable to inundation during rainy season, the southern area consists of very fertile land and is thickly populated, commonly known as 'Diara'. The Ganga River flows along the south-western boundary of the district. Other important rivers are Kalindri, Tangoan , Punarbhaba, Pagla and Bhagirathi River.
The flora of Malda district is merely a small portion of that extending form Kose to the Brahmapurtra. There is an alteration of the beels and village shrubberies with the drier jungle of the Barind region. Where the ground is not occupied by the usual crops, it is covered by abundant natural vegetation excepting the sandy beds of rivers. Old river beds, ponds, marshy land etc. have a copious vegetation of vallisneria and other plants. The areas which are subject to frequent inundation usually cover themselves with seedy grasses and in marshy parts with Rosainvolucrata. Some portions of Barind area are covered by jungles, which consist chiefly of thorny scrub bush jungles mixed with Pipal, Bat, Simul and Pakur trees and Nepal Bamboos. Species of thorny bamboos are also seen in Pandua areas near villages and embankment areas of Gour thickets or shrubberies, ordinary Neem tree, Jack-fruit tree, Tamarind, Bamboo, Peepul tree and Mango tree are seen in plenty. The soil of the western region of the district is particularly suited to the growth of mulberry and mango, for the production of both of which Malda has become famous. Though large games were found in plenty in the Malda district, the jungles have now mostly been cleared and their inhabitants exterminated by the Santals and Paharias, who have crossed the Ganges in large number to settle in Barind and other areas. The rivers, beels, and ponds of Malda produce considerable quantities of various categories of fishes such as Rohu, Katla, Chital, Boal, Magur, Shol, Hilisha, Pabda and varieties of Crabs, Prawns, Turtles etc. Pisciculture has been undertaken under various projects according to modern scientific methods.
(Last Updated on : 23-12-2013)