(Last Updated on : 12-03-2018)
Farming or agriculture in Indian villages
has been the principal occupation
for the people since the ancient period, as they earn their livelihoods from agriculture. The people cultivate various types of crops
throughout the year. The farming systems are extensively contributing Indian agriculture
in different ways like subsistence farming, organic farming and industrial farming. India is very reliant on its monsoon
cycle for big crop yields.
Climate and Farming in India
The climatic condition in India is perfectly suitable for agricultural activities and has been one of the major reasons behind people choosing farming as their principal occupation. For Indias ecological location, its parts are experiencing different climates
which are affecting each areas agricultural yield in a different way. Places like Gujarat
, and northern Maharashtra
all experience the climate of yearly 50 centimetres of rain and each region grows such appropriate crops like jowar
, bajra and peas. West Bengal
, parts of Bihar
, Uttar Pradesh
are associated with the climate of average yearly 100-200 centimetres of rainfall and they produce crops such as rice
and many more. Each type of crop is grown in a different season
depending on their compatibility with definite weather. In the contemporary period, the dependency on weather has lessened with the advancement of irrigation technology and different types of crops are being cultivated in India.
Types of Farming in India
People in Indian villages are involved with the agriculture sector in various ways. They occasionally take help of others to do the farming. Other types of farmers in the Indian villages are those who do not have any land of their own. They help others to cultivate crops in their lands. In this way, these people are dependent on agriculture for earning their livelihoods. Following are the different types of Farming in India:
: Many Indian farming families
are in milk
production because it is a stock scheme. Usual milk sales allow them to move from subsistence to earning market-based profits.
: In this method, the crops are grown-up with the aid of irrigation
systems, by supplying water to lands through rivers
, reservoirs, tanks and wells. The key scheme for these irrigation systems centres on different public investments such as large dams
, long canals and other major works that have the need of large amounts of resources.
: In this method of farming, crops are developed in large scale plantations or estates and send to other countries for capital. These systems are regular in populated areas such as Gujarat, Tamil Nadu
, Punjab, Haryana
and Maharashtra. Examples of crops grown commercially are wheat
, sugarcane and corn. Intensive commercial farming, extensive commercial farming and commercial grain farming are the different types of commercial farming method.
: In this, the land is cultivated for few years, until the crop yields. After that the plot of land is deserted and the ground is cleared by burn methods which allow the land to stock up. Crops like potatoes, rice, corn, buck wheat, small millets, root crops and vegetables
are mostly grown in this type of farming. This type of farming is mostly seen in Assam, Meghalaya
, Arunachal Pradesh
, Madhya Pradesh
, and Andhra Pradesh
. 85 percent of the whole cultivation in northeast India
is by shifting cultivation. Regular shifting from one land to the other has affected the ecology of these areas.
: It is a capital centred method. For this, advancement in technology and knowledge in well-organized methods of cultivation with the tools including fertilizers, irrigation and transport facilities are required. The tea plantations in Assam and West Bengal, the coffee
plantations in Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu, and the rubber plantations in Kerala and Maharashtra are the different examples of this type of farming.
: It is a type of subsistence farming. In it, if there is an individual working alone or shared farmer working together then the yield is only for their own consumption. Several farmers in India develop the crop rotation system to develop or maintain soil productiveness.
: It is a latest farming system in India. It generally excludes pooling of land contrasting with the collective farming where pooling of land is also prepared.
: Another form of farming in Indian villages that provides occupation to the villagers is organic farming. Organic farmers mainly rely on crop rotation, crop residues, animal
organics and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and farmland.
: There are also many people in Indian villages who are involved in contract farming. In contract farming, a person takes care of someone else's land and cultivates crops in the land. He gets a certain portion of the cultivated crops at the end of the season as his rewards. This is a very common practice in the Indian villages.
In this way, farming in Indian villages is providing occupation to many people. The dependency of Indian villagers on agriculture and the suitable climatic condition has made India the largest producer of milk, cashew nuts, coconut palm tree
and black pepper
in the world. India is also the second highest producer of farm products in the world. Farming in Indian villages is the backbone of the entire economical structure of India.