(Last Updated on : 06/04/2009)
The Western Chalukya Empire lined most of the western deccan, South India, amid the 10th and 12th centuries. This empire is occasionally referred to as the Kalyani Chalukya subsequent to its imperial capital at Kalyani, presently known Basavakalyan in Karnataka
and alternatively the Later Chalukya cropping from its hypothetical association to the sixth century Chalukya dynasty of Badami. The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas in order to distinguish from the contemporary Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, a separate dynasty.
Preceding the rise of the Chalukyas
, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta proscribed majority of deccan and central India for over two centuries. In 973, observing the perplexity in the Rashtrakuta territory following a triumphant incursion of their capital by the Paramara of Malwa, Tailapa II a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta ruling from Bijapur region overpowered his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty speedily rose to power and grew into an empire under Somesvara I who moved the capital to Kalyani.
For over a century, the two empires of southern India, the Western Chalukyas and the Chola dynasty of Tanjore fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi
, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marraige took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. Its was only during the rule of Vikramaditya VI in the late eleventh century that the Western Chalukya empire convincingly eclipsed the Cholas and reached its peak with territories fanning out to majority of the deccan. Immense areas amid the Narmada River
in the north and Kaveri River
in the south came under Chalukya control. During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty and the Southern Kalachuri, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya waned during the later half of the twelfth century.
The Western Chalukyas developed an architectural style presently known as a intermediary style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty and that of the later Hoysala Empire
. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River
in central Karnataka
. Eminent instances are the Kasi Vishveshvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatii, the Kalleshwara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India, especially in literature as the Western Chalukya kings encouraged writers in the native language of Kannada
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