(Last Updated on : 21/04/2009)
The region towards the east of the tropical desert running from Punjab and Haryana to Kathiawar experiences tropical and sub-tropical desert type of climate. This climate is a transitional climate falling between tropical desert and humid sub-tropical, with temperatures, which are less extreme than the desert climate.
These regions experience annual rainfall between 30 to 65 cm but is very unpredictable and occurs mostly during the summer monsoon season. Maximum temperatures during summer can rise to 40°C. The vegetation mostly comprises short coarse grass. Some crops like jowar and bajra are also cultivated in these regions. Extreme climate, warm inland from April to mid-June falling to almost freezing at night in winter, between November and February are the basic features of this kind of climate. Summers are hot with interrupting monsoons between June and September. The climate is pleasant between October and March, excessively hot between April and June, and dripping with humidity between July and September. Monsoon rains occur in most regions in summer between June and September.
These regions usually experience sub-tropical continental monsoon climate and is characterized by a seasonal rhythm of hot summers, slightly cold winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature. In winter, frost sometimes occurs during December and January. The temperature in summer (from Mid-May to Mid-June) may rise to a maximum of 46.5 °C (rarely). Temperatures generally remain between 35 °C to 40 °C. During monsoon (from mid-June to mid-September), the areas receive moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain-bearing monsoon winds blow from southwest / southeast. Mostly, the areas receive heavy rain from south (which is mainly a continual rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from Northwest or Northeast. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigarh during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
In autumn (from Mid-March to April), the temperature of these areas may rise to a maximum of 36 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 16° to 27° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 13 °C.; while the winters (November to Mid-March) are quite cool and it can sometimes get quite chilly throughout the belt. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 7 °C to 15 °C and (min) -2 °C to 5 °C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 2-3 days with sometimes hail-storms. The climate remains quite pleasant during the spring season (from mid-February to mid-March and then from mid-September to mid-October). Temperatures vary between (max) 16 °C to 25 °C and (min) 9 °C to 18 °C. The areas' experiencing tropical and sub-tropical desert type of climate does not necessarily mean dry and humid weather, but also assures some comfortable and enjoyable winters, autumns and springs.