(Last Updated on : 15/06/2017)
Indian mines and minerals
play an important role in the economy of India
. Mining in India has its existence since ancient times. It is almost over 6000 years old. It was only after independence
that the Indian mines and minerals sector experienced a phenomenal increase in growth rate. Post-independence, the mining industry in India had developed numerous modern techniques and methods for mining. Mining and mineral industries in India
include both metallurgical and mineral mining industries and together they form the backbone of the industrial development in India as they supply basic raw materials like coal, petrol, steel
, copper, aluminium
metals and others to the India manufacturers. It is important to note that Indian mines and minerals industries play an important role in generating employment and makes contribution to Indian export.
India produces about 89 minerals out of which about 4 are fuel minerals, 11 are metallic minerals, 52 are non-metallic minerals and 22 are minor minerals. There are enormous deposits of minerals in India. The metallic ores have been tested as immensely rich and of high quality. India is rich in various types of minerals like iron
. India has a large number of worlds iron ore reserves. The largest deposit of bauxite, an ore of aluminium, occurs in Amarkantak
in Madhya Pradesh. India has the distinction of being one of the largest mica-producing countries of the world. Bihar is the largest supplier of high quality mica in India. Bihar
and West Bengal contribute the largest amount of good quality coal in India. Coal had been a major contributor in providing energy security during the past century. Since coal is a non-renewable resource
, it will deplete with time.
Other minerals in which India is rich are copper
concentrates and gold
ore. Amongst the non-metallic minerals, more than 90 percent of the aggregate value is shared by limestone, magnesite, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum
, apatite and phosphorite
, steatite and fluorite.
India is one of the world's top producers of several minerals. More specifically, India ranks 1st in the production of sheet mica, 3rd in the production of iron ore, 5th in the production of bauxite, 10th in the production of aluminium, 3rd in the production of coal, lignite and barites and 11th in the production of crude steel in the world. With the recent spurt in world demand for chromite, India has stepped up its production to reach the 3rd rank among the chromite producers of the world.
Indian mines are scattered unevenly throughout the country based on the topography and accumulation of minerals in the respective regions. Most of the mines are located in Odisha Plateau and Chota Nagpur Plateau
spreading over West Bengal
. Moreover, Karnataka
, Andhra Pradesh
, Tamil Nadu
, Madhya Pradesh
are also rich in minerals and have numerous mines. Over 3100 mines located all over India contribute products like coal, lignite, limestone
and iron ore. Productions from open cast mines account for more than 80 percent of the total mineral production in the country. In India, 80 percent of mining is in coal and the balance 20 percent is in various metals and other raw materials such as gold, copper, iron, lead
, bauxite, zinc and uranium.
The quantity of minerals being taken out annually from the Indian mines can be determined by summing up the quantity of overburden with the annual mineral production. Given below are some of the Indian mines and their locations.
Indian Diamond Mines
There is one active diamond
mine at Panna
in the central Indian state
of Madhya Pradesh. Another diamond mine
is Kollur Mine in Andhra Pradesh
. A diamond mine related project is Bunder Project.
Indian Coal Mines
West Bokaro Coal Mines on West Bokaro Coalfield are situated in Jharkhand
. Raniganj Coalfield
is located in West Bengal and Jharkhand. Talcher Coal Mines are located on the Talcher coalfield in Odisha. Other coal mines are Korba Coal Mines and Jharia Coal Mines.
India Gold Mines
Hatti Gold Mines and Kolar Gold Mines
are the two India Gold Mines
located in Karnataka.
Indian Iron Ore Mines
Indian Iron Ore Mines
are located in Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.