(Last Updated on : 10/12/2015)
Red-Vented Bulbul is an Indian bird
that bears a scientific name "Pycnonotus cafer
" and it is a member of bulbul family.
Concentration of Red-Vented Bulbul
Red-Vented Bulbul is resident breeder across the Indian states, including Sri Lanka extending east to Burma and parts of Tibet. Red-Vented Bulbul has been introduced in many other parts of the world and has established itself in the wild on several Pacific islands including Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Hawaii. Red-Vented Bulbul has also established itself in parts of Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, the United States, Argentina and New Zealand.
Description of Red-Vented Bulbul
Red-Vented Bulbul was originally described by Linnaeus in 1766.
Population of Red-Vented Bulbul
There are several populations of Red-Vented Bulbul species that have been named as subspecies (or races). The nominate race is found in southern Indian states like Kerala
, Tamil Nadu
. The locality of Puducherry
was designated by Erwin Stresemann. The race in the western part is intermedius and is found in Kashmir and Kohat down to the Salt Range and along the Himalayas to Kumaon. The race bengalensis is found in the Himalayas from Nepal east to Assam. South of these two forms are pallidus to the west south to Ahmednagar District
and saturatus along the east, south to the Godavari River
basin. Race chrysorrhoides is found in China. Two formerly designated races nigropileus in Southern Burma and Burmanicus of Northern Burma are considered as hybrids.
Structure of Red-Vented Bulbul
Red-Vented Bulbul is easily identified by its short crest giving the head a squarish appearance. The body is dark brown with a scaly pattern while the head is darker or black. The rump is white while the vent is red. The black tail is tipped in white. The Himalayan races have a more prominent crest and are more streaked on the underside. The race intermedius of the Western Himalayas has a black hood extending to the mid-breast. Population Bengalensis of Central and Eastern Himalayas and the Gangetic plain has a dark hood, lacks the scale like pattern on the underside and instead has dark streaks on the paler lower belly. Race stanfordi of the South Assam
hills is similar to intermedius. The desert race humayuni has a paler brown mantle. The nominate race cafer is found in Peninsular India. Northeast Indian race wetmorei is between cafer, humayuni and bengalensis.
Size of Red-Vented Bulbul
Red-Vented Bulbul is about 20 cm in length, with a long tail. The Sri Lankan race of Red-Vented Bulbul has a dark mantle with narrow pale edges. Race humayuni is known to hybridize with Pycnonotus leucogenys
and these hybrids were once described as a subspecies magrathi marked by their pale rumps and yellow-orange or pink vents. In eastern Myanmar there is some natural hybridization with Pycnonotus aurigaster
Sexes of Red-Vented Bulbul
The sexes of Red-Vented Bulbul are similar in plumage, but young birds are duller than adults.
Call of Red-Vented Bulbul
The typical call of Red-Vented Bulbul has been transcribed as ginger beer but a number of sharp single note calls likened as pick are also produced. Their alarm calls are usually responded to and heeded by many other species of bird.
Habitat of Red-Vented Bulbul
Red-Vented Bulbul is a bird of dry scrub, open forest, plains and cultivated lands. In its native range it is rarely found in mature forests.
Distinguishing Red-Vented Bulbul
Red-Vented Bulbul is among the first animals other than humans that were found to be incapable of synthesizing Vitamin C.