Some of the great religious texts like the 'Shiva Purana', the 'Devi Bhagavata', the 'Kalika Purana' and the 'Ashta Shakti' recognize four major "Shakti Peethas", like "Bimala Temple", "Tara Tarini Temple", "Kamakshya Temple" and "Dakshina Kalika Temple" originated from the limbs of the 'Corpse of Mata Sati' in the Satya Yuga. Apart from these four there are 51 other famous Peethas recognized by religious texts. According to the 'Pithanirnaya Tantra' the 51 Peethas are scattered all over India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan and Pakistan.
Legend of Adi Shakti Peethas
In Satya Yuga, Daksha performed a "Yajna" with a desire to take revenge on Lord Shiva. Daksha was angry because his daughter Dakshayani also known as 'Sati' had married the 'yogi' God Shiva against his wish. Daksha invited all the deities to the yajna except for Shiva and Shakti. The fact that she was not invited did not deter Shakti from attending the yajna. She had expressed her desire to attend to Shiva who had tried his best to dissuade her from going. Shiva eventually allowed her to go escorted by his followers.
But Sati, being an uninvited guest, was not given any respect. Furthermore, Daksha insulted Shiva. Sati was unable to bear her father's insults toward her husband, so Dakshayani invoked her yogic powers and immolated herself.
Enraged at the insult and the injury, Shiva destroyed Daksha's sacrifice, cut off Daksha's head, and later replaced it with that of a male goat as he restored him to life due to the prayers of all demi gods and Lord Brahma. Still immersed in grief, Shiva picked up the remains of Sati's body, and performed the "Tandav", the celestial dance of destruction, across all creation. The other gods requested Lord Vishnu to intervene to stop this destruction, towards which Vishnu used the "Sudarshan Chakra", which cut through the corpse of Sati. The various parts of the body fell at several spots all through the Indian subcontinent and formed sites which are known as Shakti Peethas today.
List of 4 Adi Shakti Pithas
"Shakti" refers to the Goddess worshipped at each location, all being manifestations of Dakshayani (Sati), Parvati or Durga; "Body Part or Ornament" refers to the body part or piece of jewellery that fell to earth, at the location on which the respective temple is built. In the listings below:
Bimala Temple is one of the four Adi Shakti Peethas located in Puri. The temple dedicated to the goddess Bimala is located to the right of the main temple of Jagannath within the Jagannath Temple, Puri complex beside the Rohini Kund. It is believed that the feet of Goddess Sati fell here. The temple is considered foremost among all Shaktipeeths. Goddess Bimala is worshipped as a peaceful form of Shakti.
Kalighat Kali Temple
Kalighat Kali Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the Hindu Goddess Kali. It is one of the 51 Shakti Peethas. Kalighat was a 'Ghat' sacred to Kali on the old course of the Hooghly River in the city of Kolkata.
Kamakshya Temple is a Shakti Peetha temple situated on the Nilachal Hill in western part of Guwahati city in Assam. It is the main temple in a complex of individual temples dedicated to different forms of the mother goddess as the Dasa Mahavidya, including Bhuvaneshwari, Bagala Mukhi, Chinnamasta, Tripura Sundari and Tara. It is an important pilgrimage destination for general Hindu and Tantric worshipers.
Tara Tarini Stana Peetha is situated on the holy Taratarini Hill (Purna Giri) at a distance of 30 km from Berhampur in the state of Odisha. The Twin Goddesses Tara and Tarini are worshiped as manifestations of Adi Shakti. The Taratarini Hill Shrine is one of the oldest pilgrimage centers of Mother Goddess and is one amongst four major ancient Shakti Peethas in India.