The archaeological survey has proved that the evidence of different cultures is available in this area. The excavations were carried out in different parts of the district, i.e. Ambakheri, Bargaon, Hulas, Bhadarabad and Naseerpur etc. It is also established that in Saharanpur district, the earliest habitants were found as early as 2000B.C. Traces of Indus Valley civilization and even earlier are available and now it can be definitely established that this region is connected with Indus valley civilization. Ambakheri, Bargaon, Naseerpur and Hulas were the centres of Harappan culture.
During the region of Iltutmish Saharanpur became a part of the Slave Dynasty. Muhammad Tughlak reached northern Doab to crush the rebellion of Shiwalik Kings in 1340. There he came to know about the presence of a Sufi saint on the banks of 'Paondhoi' river. He went to see him there and ordered that henceforth the place should be known as 'Shah-Harunpur' by the name of Saint Shah Harun Chisti.
Akbar was the first Mughal ruler who established civic administration in Saharanpur and made it ' Saharanpur -Sarkar' under Delhi province and appointed a Governor. The Jagir of Saharanpur was honoured to Raja Shah Ranveer Singh who founded the city of Saharanpur. At that time Saharanpur was a small village and served as army cantt. area.
Saharanpur passed to the British in 1803. Those who went on to found world famous Darul Uloom Deoband participated actively in the Great Uprising of 1857, organised the masses outside Delhi and, for a while, were successful in ousting the British from the area of their operations. The centre of their activities was Shamli, a small town in the present Muzaffarnagar District.
Saharanpur district is bounded in north by Shivalik Hills, south by Muzafarnagar district, east by Haridwar district and west by Yamuna river. The district is in a rectangular shape and it lies between 29 degrees 34 minutes 45 seconds and 30 degrees 21 minutes 30 seconds north latitude and 77 degrees 9 minutes and 78 degrees 14 minutes 45 seconds east longitude. Its total area is 3860 square Kilometers. In summer the maximum temperature is 43 degree Centigrade and minimum temperature is 30 degree centigrade and in winter the maximum is 25 degree centigrade and minimum temperature is 5degree centigrade. The highest percentage of humidity is 72 to 85 %.
Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of the Saharanpur district. Roughly 70 % of the land is under agricultural use. The significance of commercial crops have increased manifold as a consequence of sugarcane production. The important food crops of the region are wheat, rice, maize, jawar, bajara, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute are the main commercial crops.
Even though Saharanpur district does not have enough mineral resources many agro-based industries have developed in the region. Here sugar industry and paper, paperboard industry is found. Saharanpur is famous for its wood carving industry. The Shivalik range provides the raw material for the industry. Woodwork is exported to countries like Germany, UK, USA, Canada, Kuwait, Sweden, Singapore and many others. Besides exporting goods from here the region also imports Coal, iron - ore, cement, salt, petroleum products, fertilizers, oil - seeds and leather from Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Delhi and Bihar.
District Magistrate heads the revenue and criminal jurisdiction. Additional District Magistrates, City Magistrate and Sub divisional Magistrates, Tehsildars etc. is being deputed to help him in maintaining revenue and criminal jurisdiction. ADM (Executive) assists in general administration while ADM (F & R) assists in the matter of revenue administration, stamps, revenue recovery etc. City Magistate is responsible to maintain and enforce law and order in the City Area.
By Air: Sarsawa is the nearest airport of Saharanpur.
By Rail: Saharanpur is a major junction of North Indian Railway. It is connected to several neighbouring citieis.
By Road: saharanpur is well connected with the major cities by Bus roots.
Saharanpur Division has two districts in its under namely, Saharanpur and Muzafarnagar.Saharanpur District has four Sub-divisions. They are- Saharanpur, Deoband, Nakur, Behat.
As per1991 Census of India, Saharanpur district had the population of 2,309,029. Male consists of 1247.25 and female consists of 1061.78. It has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 67%, and female literacy is 60%.
Saharanpur District has a special position from the religious point of view. Although there are many famous temple and religious places in Saharanpur Shakti Peeth Shakumbari and Deoband have a unique important from the historical point of view.
Shakti Peeth Shakumbari:
It is situated at a distance of 40 Kilometer to the north of Saharanpur. The Devi temple situated in Shakumbari area dates back to ancient times although there is no concrete historical and archeological evidence. Twice a year in the month of Ashwin and Chetra the famous Shakumbari mela is organized during the days of Navratra. About Shakumbari it is believed that the Devi performed Tap for 100 years having a vegetarian meal only once every month end. During this the Rishi Munis who came for Devi's Darshan were welcomed and honoured with vegetarian meals. Because of this the temple was named as Shakumbari Devi temple. About one kilometer east of Shakumbari lies the Bhura Dev (Bhairav) temple, which is considered to be the guard of Shakumbari Devi.
Shakti Peeth Deoband:
Along The Saharanpur-Muzaffarnagar Highway lies a small town of Deoband. Thousands of years back, a very dense forest existed here. Since, this forest served as a residence of Goddess Durga, it came to be known as Devi Van, which was later named as Deoband. According to another belief, since goddess Durga had killed 'Asur' Drug here, she was worshipped here by many 'Devtas' (Gods). It is because of this Devi-Vandan, this place got its present name.
To the east of Deoband lies a large ancient lake, which is widely, know as Devi-Kund. It is said that Devi Durga had killed the Maha Asur Durg at this kund only. A temple of Bala Sundari has been built near this Devi Kund in the memory of the above event, which is a famous center for the worshippers of goddess Durga. Every year a large festival (mela) is organized here in Chaitra Shukla Chaturdashi. Innumerable devotees throng this place to take a dip in the holy waters of this Kund and worship goddess Durga. People believe that Devi of Deoband and Shakumbari are sisters. Devi Kund and the Bala Sundari temple of Deoband are considered as one of the two Shakti Peeths of Saharanpur.
Guggha Veer or Gughal:
Guggha Veer or Ghughal has a great importance in Saharanpur Districts. It is also known, as Jahar Deewan Guggha peer is a religious place situated along the Gangoh road 5 km to the south west of Saharanpur. It is said that the King of Patan (Rajasthan) Raja Kunwar Pal Singh had two daughters Vachhal and Kachhal after marriage Vachhal provided dedicated worship to Guru Gorakhnath to be blessed with a son. But When Guru was providing blessing Kachhal reached there and obtained Guru blessing for two sons, which was, actually meant for Vachhal. Guru Gorakhnath realized this and later gave is blessing to Vachhal in the form of a son Gugghal with the condition that Ghugghal would kill the sons obtained by Kachhal as a result of Guru blessing. Ghugghal was highly disappointed with this and he went to the forest for Tapshya. Guru Gorakhnath was pleased with his Tapshya and blessed him as a Veer.
This place latter came to be known as Ghggha veer ki Marhi since then every year at the time of Shukla Paksh Dashmi in the month of Bhado a large festival (mela) is organized here which is a symbol of Hindu Muslim unity. This festival is popularly known as Mela Ghughal.
Nau Gaza Peer
Among the different Peer existing in this region Nau Gaza has a unique identity. It has 26 feet long 'Mazaar'. The most peculiar features of this Mazaar are that every time this Mazzar is measured it appeared to be of a different size. The Mazaars of the Nau Gaza exists at Gagalheri and Baliakheri.
There are different versions about Nau Gaza. Some Muslim say that during Musa Ale Salam, the height of a man used to be around 26 feet and these Mazar have been built around that time. According the some Hindu scholars in ancient times there existed some saints who could read peoples mind with in 9 Yards distance. Hence they were known as Nau Gaza. Whatever the reason may be, Nau Gaza Peer has a great religious significance in Saharanpur. Every year a large festival (mela) is organized here and thousands of hinds and Muslims visits this place for worship.
Baba Sri Lal Das
Saharanpur had the distinction of having a noble soul like Baba Shri Lal Das on its soil. Baba Lal Das performed his Tapshya in Saharanpur as a result of which Mughal ruler Dara Shikoh had to bow in front of Indian culture. Baba was born in Kaloor town near Lahore in Pakistan. The great Tapasvi Shri Chetan Swami was his Guru. After obtaining his education from his Guru, Baba came to Saharanpur and performed Tapshya for hundred years. This place in Saharanpur is famous as Bada Shri Lal Das or "Lal Vadi". It is situated along the chilkana road four Km to the north Saharanpur bus station.
In Saharanpur, there are many places to visit.
It is a very beautiful botanical garden once the preserve of the British East India Company.
The Saharanpur Botanic Garden: It is one of the oldest existing gardens in India and dates back to before 1750. Then named Farahat-Baksh, it was originally a pleasure ground, set out by a local chief in the 1770s. In 1817, it was acquired by the East India Company. When the Botanical Survey of India was established in 1887, to reform the country's botanical science, Saharanpur became the centre for the survey of the northern Indian flora. Overall, the Garden is seen historically as being second only to the Calcutta Gardens in terms of national significance for its contribution to science and economy. Although under private auspices today, it is full of greenery and has many different kinds of plants and flowers.
Ambedkar Park: It is founded by Chief Minister Mayawati, and the wood carvings market at Ambala Road which displays wonderful examples of the art of this city.