George William Anderson joined the Bombay Civil Service in the year 1806. He was involved in the framing up the Bombay Civil Code of 1827 and acted as a judge in the courts of Sadr Faujdari and Sadr Diwani. In the year 1838, Anderson was named to the Indian Law Commission. Later in 1849, he was knighted for his loyal services to the British East India Company. George William Anderson was appointed as the Governor of Bombay Presidency on 28 April 1841 and was preceded by Sir William Hay Macnaghten, 1st Baronet, who retired as the Governor of Bombay in 28 April 1841.
Bombay Presidency was one of the Presidencies and provinces of British India. It was first founded in the 17th century at Surat as a trading post for the British East India Company. The Presidency included the territories of modern states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, regions of Konkan, Kandesh and Desh and northwestern Karnataka state. Sir George William Anderson served in office till 9 June 1842 and was succeeded by Lieutenant General Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet KCH PC.
George William Anderson was appointed as the 7th Governor of Mauritius from 8 June 1849 until 19 October 1850. He was assigned Governor of British Ceylon (Sri Lanka), after the harsh repression of the 1848 civil rebellion by Viscount Torrington, the previous office holder. He resigned from his administrative career in the year 1855. George William Anderson died on 12 March 1857.