(Last Updated on : 13/02/2009)
In the last stage of the evolution of Hinduism the influence of Dravidian
culture of Southern India was very prominent from the eighth to the twelfth centuries. In Tamil Nadu
there were new religious movements characterized by emotionally charged devotionalism. They emphasized on hymn singers in the vernacular language rather than Sanskrit
, which was known only to the learned .The most important themes were written in Tamil by two groups of poet the Nayanars, who were the worshippers of Shiva
and the Alvars who were the devotees of Vishnu
Among the 63 Nayanaar poets the foremost among them were Appar and Manikka Vasagar .Nayanaars came from varied backgrounds and ranged from kings to soldiers to the untouchables.
They are as follows Aanaaya Nayanaar , Adhipaththa Nayanaar, Aiyadigal Kaadavarkon Nayanaar (Pallava King Aiyadigal Perumaanaar) Amarneethi Nayanaar , Appoodhi Adigal Nayanaar , Arivaattaaya Nayanaar ,Chandesuvara Nayanaar , DhandiyadigaL Nayanaar , Enaathinatha Nayanaar , Eripaththa Nayanaar , Eyarkon Kalikkaama Nayanaar,Gananaatha Nayanar ,Idankazhi Nayanar Ilaiyaankudimara Nayanar , Isaij Nayanaar, Female Nayanmar ,Iyarpakai Nayanar ,Kaari Nayanar ,Kalikkamba Nayanar,Kaliya Nayanar Kanampulla Nayanar ,Kannappa Nayanar ,Karaikkal Ammaiyaar(female Nayanar. Karaikkalammaiyar)Kazharchinga Nayanar ,Kazharir-rarivaar Nayanar( Chera King Cheramaan perumaaL )Kochchenkat Chola Nayanar( A Chola King )Kootrruva Nayanar ,Kotpuli Nayanar Kulachchirai Nayanar,Kungiliyak Kalaya Nayanar,Manakkanychaara Nayanar,Mangaiyarkkarachiyaar( Female Nayanmar )Meypporul Nayanar ,Moorkha Nayanar ,Moorthy Nayanar ,Munaiyaduvaar Nayanar,Muruga Nayanar,Nami Nandhi Adigal,Narasinnga Munaiyaraiya Nayanar,Nesa Nayanar,Ninra Seer Nedumaara Nayanar, Perumizhalaik Kurumba Nayanar,Poosalaar Nayanar,Pugal Chola Nayanar(A Chola King),Pukazth Thunai Nayanar,Saakkiya Nayanar, Sadaiya Nayanar,Saththi Nayanar,Seruththunai Nayanar,Sirappuli Nayanar,Siruththonda Nayanar,Somaachi Maarra Nayanar,Sundaramoorthy Nayanar(Popularly known as Sundarar)Thirugnana Sambanthar(Popularly known as Sambanthar) Thirukkuripputh Thonda Nayanar ,Thirumoola Nayanar,Thirunaalaippovaar Nayanar(Popularly known as Nandhanaar) Thirunavukkarasar(Popularly known as Appar)Thiruneelakanda Nayanar,Thiruneelakanda Yaazpaana Nayanar,Thiruneelanakka Nayanar,Uruththira Pachupathi Nayanar,Vaayilaar Nayanar,Viranminda Nayanar