(Last Updated on : 21/12/2010)
Remedies against Internal and External Troubles, as mentioned in Chapter III of Book IX in Arthashastra
, highlights those internal and external troubles which the conqueror faces due to certain profits in the front. More elaborately the conqueror who is often surrounded by the traitors, wild tribes and the enemy in rear, sometimes confronts intricate internal as well as external conspiracies which include the ministers, priests, heir apparent, sons brothers or the members of the royal families, etc who cause internal troubles; while the chiefs of the villages, army, officers in charge of external boundaries and the foreigners form the external troubles. While the causes of such troubles have been mentioned in Consideration of Annoyance in the Rear
, the remedies against internal and external troubles only discusses the solutions.
Remedies against Internal and External Troubles entails that the trouble which is posed by the members of the royal family , brothers, sons ministers, priests, and the heir apparent is considered as internal troubles which needs the conqueror's attention . Arthashastra provides a number of remedies where in it suggests the conqueror that in case of ministers other than the prime minister the king must use strategic methods to punish him while in case of brothers, sons, and members of the royal family, the conqueror can think of avoiding the clashes by either rewarding them or through methods of conciliation, by allowing them to use and enjoy all those items which he has already seized, he can also enter into agreements with them or by using intrigues against them or even by sending them to the enemy land.
Remedies against Internal and External Troubles further mentions that in case of internal troubles posed by the priests, the ministers, commander in chiefs and the heir apparent the conqueror should get rid of such internal enemy by either giving up his own fault or by pointing them out the danger rising from the external enemy .If the priest is guilty of his gravest treason, then relief should be found by either confining him or by banishing him and when the heir apparent is so confined, alternatives can be found either in death or confinement as this shall include the danger which is to come in future. As such the conqueror may select other son as heir apparent who shall bear better moral character and other good qualities. Similar shall be the case for the ministers, and the commander in chiefs.
Remedies against Internal and External Troubles also mentions the external troubles which are usually posed by the chiefs of the district, officers in charge of the boundaries, chief of the wild tribes, and a conquered king. This should be overcome by setting one against the other, whoever has strongly fortified himself should be either caught hold of through the agencies of frontier king or should be restricted by the Institution of Spies
, which shall restrict him from joining any enemy camp. The spies should be instructed to even appoint such persons who can kill him whenever required. In case of person who is capable in alleviating the troubles should be restricted by using intrigues against him; and in case of persons who are of reliable character can be carried further as he can be used to maintain friendship. When intrigue is carried by a foreigner of obstinate nature, claims that after killing his own master he comes to the conqueror who has been advised that after acquiring two of the objectives regarding the destruction of y enemy and acquiring his area, the conqueror should get rid of such external trouble who shall kill him unless he kills him. In case of intrigue planed by the local people of obstinate nature mainly intends to plunder the wealth of the king, kill his master, create conspiracy and cause confusion among the Circle of States. Such internal enemy should be kept at a distance and eradicated at the first available opportunity.
Thus Remedies against Internal and External Troubles claims that enemies from enemies, subjects from subjects, enemies from subject and subject from enemies should always be guarded from each other and a learned man should always guard himself from both the enemy as well as the subjects. This shall help the conqueror to assess the approaching danger to him as well as his kingdom.