(Last Updated on : 22-12-2010)
Persons Associated with Traitors and Enemies mentions that one of the primary Work of an Invaders that he must recognise and differentiate between the enemy lot and his loyal people who shall remain close to him. While Chapter VI of Book IX in Arthashastra suggests a number of such methods which are to be applied by the conqueror to differentiate; it further enlists four strategic methods to be used to lure the people so that they remain disassociated from the enemies. Arthashastra
mentions that there are two types of innocent people, one who have dissociated themselves from the traitors and those who have kept themselves away from the enemies. In order to separate the citizens and country-people from traitors the conqueror is advised to apply four strategic methods other than coercion, this includes the methods like conciliation, dissention, gifts and conciliatory coercion. The conqueror must be conscious that it is always very difficult to punish the influential group of people and even if they are punished it might not produce desirable end but he shall be free to take steps against the seditious leaders which has been largely discussed in the chapter Concerning the Awards of Punishments
, Book V in Arthashastra.
Persons Associated with Traitors and Enemies declares that in case of applying different strategic methods the conqueror should begin with the method of conciliation which shall frustrate the efforts of those who are the principle agents of the enemy who actually carry out the intension of the enemy. While it has been observed success in securing services from the capable agents primarily depends on the king as well as his ministers, it at the same time mentions that when the success is achieved with a combination of the loyal persons as well as the traitors, then it is a mixed success with mixed people while the real success is to be achieved through the agency of loyal persons only. When the success includes a combination of both friend and enemy then it is termed as contaminated success; and in that case it must be achieved from the agency of friends only. In case a friend refuses to terms of friendship then the conqueror shall be free to use methods like intrigues, or should be free to employ the Institution of Spies
who shall keep the friend away being associated with the enemy, he can also use such strategic methods to break the combination of the friends and try to secure the friendship of the last friend, he can also use methods to differentiate the last friend from those who were in the middle or who were even earlier in the list. The basic intension which persists is to break the liaison between the friends and make them weak by fragmenting them.
Persons Associated with Traitors and Enemies further asserts that in case of applying strategic methods for a virtuous king, he may be conciliated by praising his birth, family, learning and character, or by pointing out the relationship which his ancestors had or by proving the benefit or the absence of enmity shown to him. A king who bears good intensions and who has lost his enthusiastic spirit, whose strategic means are all exhausted thwarted in a number of wars, or who has lost his men and wealth can be won over by conciliation; the king who is greedy can won over by giving gifts. In case of selecting gifts Arthashastra mentions there are at least five kinds of gifts which include abandonment of what is to be paid, continuance of what is being given, repayment of what is received, payment of one's own wealth, and help for a voluntary help for a voluntary raid on other's property. Among the two kings who are apprehensive of each other the conqueror can apply the second method which is the policy of dissension which shall frighten the timid ruler who shall; accept peace with the conqueror to avoid any clash with his neighbouring king. In case of the manufacturing products too the conqueror can create confusion and apply the policy of dissention. With the help of the spies he can he spread rumours in the enemy camp which shall create confusion and may profit the conqueror in many ways to destroy his enemy. Likewise seeds of dissension may also be sown among the common states; the spies under concealment may even choose to murder by means of weapons, poison and other things as mentioned in Arthashastra.
Thus, With the Four Strategic Methods which include conciliation which is of single quality; gifts which are two fold ; dissension which are three fold; and conciliatory coercion which is four fold, are the steps available to the conqueror who can use these steps to differentiate between the loyal persons and the traitors.