(Last Updated on : 21/12/2010)
Internal and External Dangers, as mentioned in Chapter V of Book IX in Arthashastra
, enlists some kinds of internal as well as external dangers in which include danger which is of external origin and of internal abetment; the danger which is of internal origin and of external abetment; the danger which is of external origin and of external abetment; and the danger which is of internal origin and of internal abetment.
Internal and External Dangers mentions that whenever an intrigue place between the local person and the foreigners, the consequence of such combination is of a very serious nature; the abettors have a better chance to win while the foreigners usually win over the local people. In case of suppressing the local abettors who intrigue with the foreigners, the king should employ methods like conciliation, and gifts which are also known as sama and dana. The act of pleasing a man with a high rank and honour is conciliation; favour and remission of taxes or employment to conduct state works is what is termed gifts. When a foreigner is abetting then the king should employ policies like dissention and coercion; Institution of Spies
can also be used as they in the disguise of traitors shall restrict the foreigners as well as the local people from getting into traps.
Internal and External Dangers further claims that where foreigners carry on an intrigue with foreigners, and the local men with local men, there the consequences of the intrigue unanimously carried on with a set purpose, will be very serious nature. In such case if the guilty is not caught then it shall contaminate the rest of the community. Thus the king should be more careful in employing the policy of dissention and coercion for the foreigners which h shall work as an example for others. In case the local men carry out intrigue with the local men, the king should employ necessary methods to put them down.
Thus Internal and External Dangers mainly alerts the conqueror that other than invasion he needs to be more alert towards the moral growth of his own people which can come to a standstill in the company of conspirators and intrigues.