(Last Updated on : 24-12-2010)
Causes of Dissension in Chapter I of Book XI in Arthashastra
, describes a number of corporation which helps the conqueror to acquire some of the possessions which is better than the acquisition through army. The conqueror should secure and enjoy the services of such corporations who are favourable to him through distribution of gifts and conciliation and should sow the seeds of dissension among those who are opposed to him and secretly punish them.
Causes of Dissension, as such, makes a distinction between different types of corporations which include corporation of warriors which further included corporations of Kambhoja, and Surashtra and other countries which live by agriculture, trade and wielding powers. There are corporations which include corporations of Lichchhivika, Vrjika, Mallaka, Madraka, Kukura, Kuru, Panchala and others who live by the title of a Raja. Among other corporations the Institution of Spies are also included which are very effective in sowing the seeds of dissentions among the enemy and the conqueror.
Causes of Dissension give a detailed description of the role played by the spies in sowing seeds of dissention. The spies who can freely acquire access among various corporations are able to trace out the causes of hatred, jealousy and other causes of quarrel them which in the long run sow the seeds of dissensions among them. Spies under the guise of a teacher should cause childish embroils among those who possess mutual enmity on occasions of disputation about certain points of science, art gambling and sports. Fiery spies may cause quarrels among the leaders of corporation by praising the inferior leaders. The spies can even persuade the superior to interdine and intermarry with the inferior and in the process encourage agitation in the society which is conservative. In all the cases where the superior is opposed to the inferior, the conqueror should support the inferior with men and money and place him against the superior. Whenever they are fragmented they should be sent out of the country and asked to settle in areas which are close to cultivable lands. Special fines can also be imposed on those who are treacherous in intention. As such the conqueror should make utmost efforts to win these corporations with the help of conciliations, gifts wealth, supply of men and money. This further includes methods of sowing the seeds of dissension in the camps and within the wild tribes.
Thus Causes of Dissension mainly includes the role played by the corporation in sowing seeds of dissension among who are already quarrelling and encourage excitement among the warring groups.