Array of Army in which the army stands a breasts to fight the enemy from front is, called a staff-like array (danda); stationing the army in a line so that one may follow the other, is called a snake-like array (bhoga); stationing the army so as to face all the directions is called a circle-like array (mandala); detached arrangement of the army into small bodies so as to enable each to act for itself, is termed an array in detached order. The army which is of equal strength on its wings, flanks and front, is a staff-like array; the same array is called pradara (breaking the enemy's array) when its flanks are made to project in front; the same is called dridhaka (firm) when its wings and flanks are stretched back; the same is called asahya (irresistible) when its wings are lengthened; when having formed the wings, the front is made to bulge out, it is called an eagle-like array.
Array of army further mentions that the army when reversely arranged then it is called a "bow", "centre of the bow"," a hold" and "a strong hold"; and of which the wings are arrayed like a bow is called Sanjaya. The same with projected front is called vijaya (conqueror); that which has its flanks and wings formed like a staff, is called sthulakarna (big ear); the same with its front made twice as strong as the conqueror, is called visalavijaya (vast victory); that which has its wings stretched forward is called chamumukha (face of the army); and the same is called ghashasya (face of the fish) when it is arrayed in the reverse form.
Array of army also mentions that the array in which chariots form the front, elephants the wings, and horses the rear, is called arishta (auspicious); the array in which infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants stand one behind the other is called achala (immovable); the array in which elephants, horses, chariots and infantry stand in order one behind the other is called apratihata (invincible).
Among these, the conqueror should assail the pradara by means of the dridhaka; dridhaka by means of the asahya; syena (eagle like array) by means of chapa(an array like a bow); a hold by means of a stronghold; sanjaya by meant of vijaya; sthula-karna by means of visalavijaya ; varipatantaka by means of sarvatobhadra. He may assail all kinds of arrays by means of durjaya. Of infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants, he should strike the first-mentioned with that which is subsequently mentioned; and a small constituent of the army with a big one. For every ten members of each of the constituents of the army, there must be one commander, called padika, ten padikas under a senapati; ten senapatis under a nayaka (leader). It is further mentioned that the constituents of the array of the army should be called after the names of trumpet sounds, flags and ensigns. Achievement of success in arranging the constituents of the army in gathering the forces, in camping, in marching, in turning back, in making onslaughts, and in the array of equal strength depends upon the place and time of action.
As such Kautilya in Array of Army insists that by the display of army, by secret contrivances, by employing the Institution of Spies to strike the enemy, or otherwise by using methods like witch crafts; by harassing the enemy with harassing his cattle etc are some of the methods through which the invader can excite the enemy and exhibit his power on return.
Thus, Array of Army has been given a lot of importance which shall benefit the invader in exposing himself to the enemy and defeat him at times when required. This shall not only strengthen the invader but will boost the invader's army to a great extend.
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