(Last Updated on : 04-12-2010)
Superintendent of Passports shall issue passes to all the outsiders at the rate of a masha per pass. Arthashastra
lays down in Chapter XXXII of the Book II that whoever has been issued a pass shall have the liberty to move in any part of the country. Those who are the natives of the country and enters and goes out without a pass shall be fined or 12 mashas. He shall be punished with first amercement for producing false passes and the foreigners found guilty of the same default shall be punished with the highest amercement.
Superintendent of pastureland along with superintendent of passes shall examine the passes and open the pasture grounds between any two dangerous areas. Superintendent of pasture shall further be in charge of clearing the valley from all wild animals, thieves, elephants as well as other beasts ensuring the security of people in the area. Under the supervision of the superintendent of pasture land, the barren lands need to be utilised by building tanks, buildings for shelter, wells, as well as flower gardens and fruit gardens.
Superintendent of pasture land shall be in charge of protecting timber forests, and elephant forests, to keep the roads in good repair, to arrest thieves, to secure the safety of mercantile traffic, to protect cows, and to conduct the transaction of the people.
Thus, Kautilya in Arthashastra includes the role of the superintendent of passport as well as pasture land in order to secure the safety of the local people from trespassers as well as thieves .While they pose check on the borders of the land from unseen calamities, at the same time they add to the royal earning for the state.
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