In the work 'Anakhi Kahi Kavita' (1951), there can be seen a conscious attempt to go beyond human poverty. Efforts are made to bring together the Western values imbibed through education and the spiritual discourse of the native saints. Even in his turn to the spiritual understanding of the modern world, he seems to hang on to the rationalist approach. He strove for precision of expression in his poetry. Mardhekar's poetry did not create a tradition in Marathi poetry, but it certainly changed its direction and form. It also marked a decline of romantic-humanist tradition in Marathi poetry.
P. S. Rege (1910-78) is acknowledged as an important poet of contemporary Marathi poetry. He, along with Mardhekar and Muktibodh, is credited for revival of poetry in the post-colonial period. Yet, his approach to poetry is quite different from that of the other two. He is more focused with form, style, rhythm, lyricism, and sensual expression. His poetry avoids the dimensions of time and space. Thus it is held that there was a very strong private element in his poetry. He published his first collection of poems, Sadhana am Itar Kavita, in 1931. Himaseka (1943) is acknowledged as his first major collection. There is a constant theme which seems to haunt his imagination, and that is of a woman in love. He feels that feminity embodies the essence of love that goes beyond time and event. His later collections of poetry include Dusara Pakshi (1966), Priyala (1972), and Suhrudgatha (1975). He also wrote three novels, two volumes of essays and literary criticism, and several plays.
Govind V. Karandikar (1918) started along the path paved by Keshavsut, Madhav Julian, and Savarkar but later turned to Mardhekar and Rege for inspiration (Deshpande and Rajadhyaksha 1988). His Mrudgandha (1954) and Dhrupada (1959) brought him recognition as an innovative poet.
Sharatchandra Muktibodh's (1921-84) work was also influential in determining the modernist trend in Marathi poetry. It is influenced by Marxist ideas. He, too, confronts modern society, but his work projects a clarity and resolve to bring about social justice to all people. There is a conviction of inherent human abilities and creativity, as well as an awareness of contradictions and inequalities of modern industrial societies. His first volume of poetry, Navi Malawat (1949), attracted attention because of the expression of genuine social commitment and concern for the exploited classes of the industrial age. Yatrik (1957), his next collection, continued along the same path, revealing the pretensions of the middle class. His poetry upset those segments of the middle class who were comforted by the conformist poetry of Tambe and the Ravikiran Mandal.
It is noteworthy that his poetry, in spite of its explicit and genuine concern for the working classes, is not blaring. It is vivid, sensitive, intelligent, and imaginative. The recurring images of fire in his poetry denote both the destruction of the oppressive and exploitative social order and resurrection of a just society. His trilogy of novels began with Kshipra in 1954 and followed with Haddapar and Jan He Voltu Jethe. The characters in the trilogy are involved in the Quit India movement in 1942. The intellectual journey of the main character, Bishu, in search of an organized framework to understand social contradictions, enables Muktibodh to provide bold interpretation of social changes while reflecting on the interaction of individual and society.
Vasant Bapat's (1922) poetry reveals his early association with a socialist organization. His patriotic songs charmed the youth of Maharashtra during the Quit India movement in 1942. His first collection, Bijali (1952), was followed by Setu (1957), Akravi Disha (1962), Sainya Chalale Pudhe (1965), Sakina (1975), Manasi (1977), and Pravasachya Kavita (1982). His poetry shows his sustained development and maturity as a poet.
Thus discussed above is the influence of modernism on Marathi literary works, especially poetry.
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