A number of Ganas schools, Kulas sub-classification of schools and Sakhas branches are already mentioned in the Kalpasutra in which they were split. The number of Gacchas existing today is negligible.
The Swetambara monks and nuns cover their mouth with a white cloth. They wear the cloth while talking so that they do not kill any organism in the process. They practice Ahimsa in every possible way. The Swetambaras believe that women can also attain Moksha.
Sub Sect of Swetambaras
Swetambara sect has been split into three main sub-sects. They are:
Murtipujaka: the members of this sub sect worship idols.
Sthanakvasi: The monks of Sthanakvasi cover their mouths with strips of cloth for all the time.
Terapanthi: The Terapanthi sub-sect was established by Swami Bhikkanaji Maharaj.
The Digambara sect of Jainism moves about without clothes. They believe that by discarding clothes they have been able to refuse to give in to the bodys demand for comfort. This is because they believe that nature is the best cover of the body. The Digambaras beg their food and eat only once a day.
Sub-Sects of Digambaras
The Digambara sect has been divided into Bisapantha, Terapantha and Taranapantha. They also have two minor sub sects, Gumanapantha and Totapantha.
Bisapantha: The Bisapantha followers support the Dharma-gurus, the religious authorities known as Bhattarakas.
Terapantha: Terapantha was formed in North India in the year 1683 of the Vikram Era. It was formed to revolt against the domination of the Bhattarakas.
Taranapantha: Taranapantha was founded by Tarana Swami. The followers of this sub-sect worship Sarnaya, the sacred books and not the idols, hence they are also known as Samaiyapantha.
Gumanapantha: The Gumanapantha sect was started by Pandit Gumani Rama, son of Pandit Todarmal. He lived in Jaipur in Rajasthan.
Totapantha: The Totapantha sub-sect was formed because of the differences between the Bisapantha and Terapantha sub-sects.
Yapaniya was a Jain sect in western Karnataka which is now extinct. This sect existed in Karnataka at least from the 5th to the 14th century. According to the history, the Yapaniya worshipped nude images of the Tirthankaras in their temples. Some of these temples can still be seen and are now worshipped by the Digambaras.
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