History of Gumla District
As per the history of Gumla District, initially it was a small village. It was known as a fair place Gau- Mela. This fair took place once in a year and continued for one week. People from distant places used to come here to attend this popular fair. Gradually this place got the name 'Gumla' as a derivative of Gau - Mela. During medieval era, the Chota Nagpur Plateau region was ruled by kings of Naga dynasty. Further, during the British rule Gumla was under Lohardaga district. In 1843, it was brought under the province of Ranchi. In fact Ranchi district came into existence in the year 1899. In 1902, Gumla became a sub-division under Ranchi District.
Geography of Gumla District
Topography of Gumla District is highly undulating and there are existence of several rivers and streams. Forests cover around 27 per cent of the total area of the district. There are three major rivers, which flow through the district namely South Koyel River, North Koyel and Shankh River. There are various tributaries to the main rivers. Gumla District enjoys a good climate characterized by pleasant cold and temperate weather conditions. The average temperature is near about 23 degree Celsius. The average annual rainfall in the district is around 1000 mm to 1100 mm. In Gumla District the important minerals like Bauxite and Laterite (Aluminium ore) are found in abundance. Total number of Bauxite mines in the district is 21. The major component of soil is Laterite. In fact, there are different types of rocks in the whole district. These rocks are of different Physical, Chemical and organic properties. The humidity of the soil in hilly area is less than that of the plain area. Important forest products are Sal seeds, Kokun, Lac, Tendu leaves, Karanj, Chiraunji etc.
Demography of Gumla District
According to the 2011 Population Census in India, the Gumla district has a population of 1,025,656. The Gumla district has a population density of 193 inhabitants per square kilometer. Gumla District has a sex ratio of 993 females for every 1000 males. The literacy rate of the Gumla District is 66.92 percent. Gumla District had a population of 1,025,656 which is 3.11 of total Jharkhand Population. Out of total 1,025,656: 514,730 are males and 510,926 are female; this makes the sex ratio of Gumla 993, which better than India's sex ratio. Gumla has an average literacy rate of 66.92 percent. In Gumla District, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Tourism in Gumla District
There are several tourism options in Gumla District. Travellers visiting this district can explore the true beauty of the region through the various tourism options offered. Like for instance, Anjan, Birsa Munda Agro Park, Baghmunda, Basudeokona, Chainpur, Dewaki, Hapamuni, Kamdara, Mahadeokona, Nagfeni, Panch Pandava Pahar, Palkot and Tanginath are the main attractions of this district. The main commercial activities of Gumla District are based on agriculture and forest products.