War with Chalukyas of Kalyani: The Chalukyas of Kalyani and Parmaras were old enemies. A constant warfare was going on between them during the reign of Munja. The power of the Chalukyas had increased during the reign of Bhoja. According to Bhoja Charit and Merutunga, Bhoja had defeated and killed the Chalukya king Tailak but this cannot be believed. After allying Kalachuris and Chotas Bhoja attacked Chalukya king Jaya Singh II. Bhoja achieved some success in the beginning but as indicated by Belagaon inscription Bhoja and his friends were defeated.
War with Gangayadeva of Tripuri: After having been defeated by Jaya Sing. Bhoja turned his attention towards the Kalachuris. Dhuara Prasasti clearly indicates that he had defeated Kalachuri king Gangayadeva.
War with Indraratha: According to Udaipur Prasasti Bhoja had also defeated king Indrarath of Orissa.
War with lata: Some inscriptions indicated that king 'Kirtiraja of lata was also defeated by Bhoja.'
Conquest of Kokad: King Kesideva of Silahar dynasty was ruling over Kokad. After defeating him Bhoja had established his authority over Kokad.
War with Kanyakubjas: Different inscriptions indicate that Bhoja had defeated the Kanyakubja king. However, scholars are of the opinion that Bhoja had returned after conquering him and did not establish his rule over there.
War with Chandellas: The Chandella king Vidyadhar had defeated Bhoja in a war and thus Bhoja could not extend his empire towards Bundelkhanda.
War with king Kirtiraja of Gwalior: It is indicated by Sahas Bahu inscription that king Kirtiraj had also defeated Bhoja.
War with the Chahamanas: Bhoja had fought against the Chahamanas of Shakambhari and had defeated their king Vikrama. Sundha inscription indicates that Bhoja had also attacked the Chahamana of Naddul branch but was defeated by them.
Guhila dynasty: It is indicated by Chirama inscription that the fort of Chitrakuta was under the control of Bhoja. This indicates probably Guhila dynasty ruled over there under the protection and authority of Bhoja.
War with the Hunas: Bhoja had also helped the confederation made by Anandapal of Punjab against Mohammad Gaznavi. The battle between the said confederation and Mohammad Gaznavi took place in 1008 and Anandapal was defeated there. Many historians are of the view that in 1043 A.D. with the help of Hindu king Bhoja had conquered many places from the Muslims. The places can be mentioned as Thaneshwara, Hansi, Nagarkota etc..
War with Chalukya king Someshwara I: Bhoja also fought a war against Chalukya king Someshwara I but was defeated and his capital Dharanagari was badly plundered. However. Bhoja did not loss faith and soon conquered Malava and plundered its capital.
Confederation against Bhoja: Towards the end of reign, his enemies made a confederation against him. This confederation was joined by Chalukya king Bhima I and Kalachari king Lakshmikarna. Chalukya king Someshwara and perhaps Lata king Trilochan and also Malwa were attacked two times by this confederation. Bhoja fought bravely against his enemies but unfortunately he died in the middle of war. His enemies availed this opportunity and plundered his capital Dharanagari. Chalukay king and Kalachuri king established their rule over Malava.
Extent of Bhoja's empire: Bhoja had built up a vast empire. The frontiers of his empire extended to Chitod, Basvada, Dungarpur, Bilsa and the valley of Godavari. Dhara was the capital of this vast empire.
Bhoja's love of education and literature: Bhoja was a powerful king and fought many wars during his reign. However, he is born famous for his love of education and literature. He has been referred as Kaviraj in Udaipur Prasasti. According to tradition he was one of the greatest lover of literature. Besides himself being a post and scholar, he extended his royal support and patronage to many scholars.
Great scholars like Dharmapala and Uvata were in his court. Dharmapala's brother Solhana and poetess Sita were also in his court. Bhoja's queen Arundhati was also a great scholar. Many book on medical science; astrology, mathematics, grammar etc. are attributed to king Bhoja.
According to some scholars following books were written by king Bhoja
Bhoja might not have written all these books but he was undoubtedly a great writer, scholar and a patron of scholars.
Public utility and welfare works: Though most of this time was spent in fighting yet Bhoja had an inclination towards public welfare works. He built many temples in his kingdom and freely donated money for such purposes. He built a city named Bhojapur and just near to it a lake was also constructed. According to some scholars the iron pillar of dhara, which is 43 feet 4 inches high, was built during his reign. However, other scholars do not agree with this view. They say that it was built in 13th century A.D. during the reign of Arjunavarman.
Religion: Bhoja was a follower of Shaiva religion. He was generous and tolerant from the point of view of religion. He wrote 'Satva-prakash', which was a book on the principles of religion. The number of Jains had increased during his reign. Many religious conferences were organized during his reign and great scholars of different religions participated in these conferences as well.
Estimate: Besides being a great rule and conqueror, Bhoja was a great poet, scholar, a lover of literature and a patron of scholars. He is ranked among the greatest kings of India. According to Dr. D. C. Ganguly, "All these attainments of Bhoja in different spheres of life established his claim to be regarded as one of the greatest kings of medieval India."
(Last Updated on : 08-04-2009)
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Bhoja, Parmara King of India