They were illiterate and did not live in cities. But they were technologically superior over their earlier inhabitants of the Indus valley, which is described, in great details in the Rig-Veda. They were also advanced in metallurgy. Their entry into India took place not as a concerted invasion but in successive waves over several centuries in the earlier half of the second millennium B.C.E. It was when they had settled in Punjab that their seers (rsi) began to compose the many hymns that were later collected in the Rig-Veda. It cannot therefore positively be said exactly who the Aryans were. Several historians have therefore left this topic just intact. Dr. V. A. Smith, who has also intentionally left this topic, comments, "Discussion concerning the original seat or home of Aryans is omitted purposely because no hypothesis on the subject seems to be established". Several historians are of the opinion that Aryans were outlanders and came to India by the Northwestern region.
Historians are in harmony regarding the Dravidians, who had ruled over Northern India for a long period of time. Then, a new race came to India by the Northwestern entry and after defeating the Dravidians, forced them to the South of India. People of this new race called themselves 'Aryans' and named their challengers 'Das' (slaves). The Aryans were fearless and audacious. They were fair-complexioned and physically were muscular, tough and attractive. Agriculture was their chief livelihood and they loved to travel and liked to admire nature.