The Mathura kingdom formed the easternmost boundary of the Saka kingdom. From the days of the Mauryan supremacy, the kingdom of Mathura was ruled by the Hindu potentates, who were the provincial governors of the Mauryas. They were supplanted by the Sakas and subsequently the city of Mathura became the headquarter of the Saka-Satrapal family. There is a keen controversy among the scholars about the names of the earliest Saka Satrapas of Mathura. According to Dr. J.N Bannerjee and Dr.D.C. Sirkar, the earliest Scythian Satrap of Mathura was Rajuvala. His coins bear the emblem of a lion and another group of his coins bear the emblem of "Standing Lakshmi" with the Brahmi legends Mahakshatrapa Rajuvulasa and "Abhiseka Lakshmi" placed before him. The "Lakshmi" emblem was used by the Saka king Azilises, hence it has been suggested by the historians that Rajuvala was nearer to the king during that time. Rajuvala was originally appointed as a normal satrapa. Later he was elevated to the status of Mahakshatrapa and he adopted the title of 'Apratihatachakra'. He sometimes ruled jointly with his son Sodasa. Rajuvala enjoyed a long reign and his kingdom stretched throughout the entire region of Mathura. Even the regions beyond Mathura extending from Punjab to Gangetic Doab, were under his sway.
A significant architectural relic of the reign of Rajuvala is the Mathura lion statue with the inscription engraved on it. According to historians, the lion statue might be a part of the Buddhist Stupa. The Lion statue consists of two lions standing back to back on a pedestal built of sandstone. The bodies of the lions are covered with Kharosti inscription, decorated by the chief queen of Mahakshatrapa Rajuvala. The inscription in the statue described the reign and pious deeds of the Mahakshatrapa Rajuvala.
Sodasa, the son of Mahakshatrapa Rajuvala succeeded his father in the Satrapal Chair. From the coins issued by Sodasa, it is known that Sodasa, at the beginning of his career acted as an ordinary Satrap and ruled jointly with his father. Sodasa assumed the title of Mahakshatrapa after the death of his father. The coins of Sodasa bear the legends of Brahmi script. Sodasa however ruled a small extent of territory in comparison to his father. His sway was confined to Mathura and adjoining regions of Uttar Pradesh only.
Apart from the evidences which proved Rajuvala and Sodasa as the Satraps of Mathura, coins of Hagana or Hagamasha were also found to testify further. The coins of Shivadatta and Shiva Ghosa were also found, which testified that they were the satraps of Mathura. The Saka-Satrapal supremacy of Mathura was ultimately put to an end by the Kushana power, when the Satraps were overthrown by Kanishka I, the Kushana Chief. However the Kushanas retained the tradition of Satrapa administration and appointed their own officials as the Satraps of the provinces under them. From the numismatics and the epigraphic evidences of the Kushana period, the names of the Kushana Kshatrapas like Mahakshatrapa Kharpallana and Mahakshatrapa Vanshapara are found.