The district headquarter is a part of medium plateau, which lies at a height of near about two thousand feet. Lower plateau borders the entire region, while the zone of medium plateau comprises of the western part of the area. The lower plateau has a height of nearly 1,300 feet above the sea level. Damodar Valley comprises of the south portion of this district. Famous Ramgarh town has its location in it, which is nearly one thousand feet 1,000 ft beneath the districts headquarters.
As has been mentioned earlier, the geography of Hazaribagh district is such that one finds no dearth of mountains and rivers here. The majestic peaks of mountains like Jillinja and Chandwara, which are as high as 3057 and 2816 ft respectively, can easily enchant one. Rivers like Damodar and Barakar also traverse through this district.
Lush forests actually made the geography of Hazaribagh so divergent. Nearly 45% of the total area of the district is in the lap of dense forestry. Plants and trees with medicinal values are grown in theses forests. However they are on the threshold of being extinct and need preservation and protection. It is also ideal abode of wild fauna as well. The common sights are the animals like Leopards, bears, jackals and foxes etc. that stride here and there within the forest locale. Winter is the time when the entire region is filled up with chirping of several migratory birds that throng here in large numbers.
Demography also is a key factor for gaining knowledge about the geography of Hazaribagh district. Regarding this a special mentioning may be made of the Census report of a particular year. It has been published in the year 2001 and throws light on certain facts like population status, literacy rate etc. As per this report, Hazaribagh has shown a population counting of 2277108. Out of it, number of males is 1167526. In comparison females are less and is 1109582 only. In it, status of tribal population also is incorporated. To be specific, Scheduled castes constitutes 15.3 %, while the population of schedule tribes is 12.2 %. By analyzing the report in details, one also can decipher the condition of literacy as well. As per this report, the literacy rate of the district has been enumerated to be 47.513 %. Specifications about male and female literacy rates also can be known. 59.162 % is male literacy rate. Just like population status, its female literacy rate constitutes 35.26 %.
Geography of Hazaribagh is quite enriched by numerous ores and mineral resources. They have led to the development and growth of the district. Principal minerals are namely mica and coal. Other minerals like limestone and China clay also are found in ample quantity.
Although forests and stones are found in abundance there are few areas, which are allotted for cultivation. In this district it is segregated into 2 parts called Upper land and Lower land. The lands that are located near riverbanks are lush and fertile. They can produce good quality of crops with the use of less quantity of fertilizers. Since the upper parts of the region is infertile one need to use a large amount of fertilizers and also irrigational activities for carrying on cultivation. Mainly Rabi and Kharif crops are sown in. Hazaribagh district is rugged and therefore irrigation is not required. If one requires irrigation tiny rivulets suffice the needs. In the post independence era initiatives have been taken by the Government. Various wells and pump are set up. Damodar Valley Project is also implemented for facilitating irrigation.
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