Agriculture in Mughal India - Informative & researched article on Agriculture in Mughal India
 Indianetzone: Largest Free Encyclopedia of India with thousand of articlesHistory of India

 Art & Culture|Entertainment|Health|Reference|Sports|Society|Travel
Forum  | Free E-magazine  | RSS Feeds  
History of India|Indian Temples|Indian Museums|Indian Literature|Geography of India|Flora & Fauna|Indian Purans|Indian Philosophy|Indian Administration|Indian Languages|Education
Home > Reference > History of India > Medieval History of India > Mughal Dynasty > Economy of Mughal Empire > Agriculture in Mughal India
Agriculture in Mughal India
Agriculture in Mughal India contributed significantly to the economy. In Mughal era, majority of the people earned their livelihood through agriculture. Different types of food and cash crops were cultivated.
More on Agriculture in Mughal India (5 Articles)
 Agriculture in Mughal IndiaAgriculture in Mughal India remained the most important source of economy. Agriculture and allied activities formed the most vital part of the economy. A large number of crops including both food as well as cash crops were cultivated by applying different advanced techniques. During that era, irrigation system was not properly developed however some of the areas did have access to canals. Some portions of lands, previously in the hands of local chiefs, were seized and brought under the government administration. Agriculture formed the most important earning source of majority of the people during Mughal era.

Mughal Empire was largely divided into different zones such as rice, wheat and millet zones. Rice dominated the eastern region and the southwest coast. Besides Gujarat, cultivation of rice with the aid of irrigation had also spread to the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. Second most prominent crop of Mughal India was wheat that was cultivated mostly in the northern and central regions of India. Further, millets were also cultivated in wheat dominant areas and other drier districts. Apart from the food crops, the cultivation of a number of cash crops also formed an integral part of the agriculture. Some of the principal cash crops included sugarcane, indigo, cotton and opium. Tobacco cultivation after being introduced by the Portuguese also spread rapidly throughout the country. Different agricultural patterns were followed. Like for instance, some portion of the land was 'single-cropped', that was being sown either for rabi or kharif harvest. On the other hand, some portion of land was 'double-cropped being sown with crops of both harvests in sequence. In single cropping pattern, land remained cultivated for near about half of the year and cultivation of the same crop can be repeated.

Cultivation of different types of spices especially black pepper was more popular in Malabar Coast. Agriculture of Tea was started in the hills of Assam. Agriculture during the Mughal era also included vegetables and fruits. They were mostly cultivated in the cities. During Mughal rule, Indian economy was considered as the second largest in the world. In the 16th century, the net domestic production of India was estimated to be around 24.5 percent of the total world economy. During the reign of the Mughal Emperors, forests and waste lands have been retreated for making them appropriate for ploughing. Thus, the total retreated area defines the net area under agriculture and it was also an index for the population growth in different regions of the country.

(Last Updated on : 27/08/2013)
E-mail this Article | Post a Comment
More Articles in Economy of Mughal Empire  (8)
Recently Updated Articles in History of India
Tirumala Deva Raya
Tirumala Deva Raya was the brother of the Aliya Rama Raya and son-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya.
Sriranga II
Sriranga II was killed within four months of his accession, but one of his sons, Rama Deva, escaped.
Sriranga Deva Raya I
Sriranga I died in 1586, without an heir and was succeeded by his youngest brother Venkatapathi Raya (Venkata II).
Ruler of Aravidu Dynasty
Rama Raya was a successful army general, able administerator and tactful diplomat of Aravidu Dynasty.
Forum on History of India
Free E-magazine
Subscribe to Free E-Magazine on Reference
Agriculture in Mughal India - Informative & researched article on Agriculture in Mughal India
Contact Us   |   RSS Feeds
Copyright © 2008 Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of
Jupiter Infomedia Ltd.