(Last Updated on : 16/08/2011)
Villages of Punjab
are rich in tradition and cultural heritage. A majority of the state's total population lives in the villages. The villagers live a life full of joy and entertainment and they celebrate each and every occasion together. Music and dance play a major part in their celebrations. The Punjabi style of celebration is famous all over the world. The villages of Punjab are also considered the lifeline for the state, as their economic, agricultural or industrial strength largely depend upon the villages.
Society in the villages of Punjab is a mixture of a variety of religious communities. People follow different religious paths and also celebrate their respective fairs and festivals. The major religious communities living in the villages of Punjab include the Muslims, Hindus, Sikhism
, Jains, Buddhists, etc. Apart from these, various tribal communities also reside in the villages of Punjab. The major tribes of Punjab include the Jats, Khatris, Aroras, Brahmans, Vaishas, Sainis, Kambohs, Sansis, etc. The Sainis mainly reside in the villages located in Jalandhar
, Gurdaspur, Rupar, etc. and the Kambohs reside in the villages of Patiala, Jalandhar
, etc. All these tribes are dependent on agriculture and hence, are known as agriculturist tribes. However, there are a few non-agriculturist tribes found in the villages of Punjab. These tribes include the Khatris, the Aroras and the Vaishas and they are mainly engaged in trade and commerce.
Languages in villages of Punjab
The rural people in Punjab speak in different languages. However, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in the villages of Punjab. Apart from Punjabi, the other major languages include Hindi, Urdu, English, etc. Other dialects are also spoken by the people in Punjab. Some of the most common dialects are Awankari, Bhattiani, Rathi, Malwai, Powadhi, Pahari, Doabi, Kangri, Dogri, Jangli, Jatki, Chenavri, Bhawalpuri, Thali, Bherochi, Dhani, Ghebi, Hindko, Swaen, Chacchi, Pothohari, Punchi, etc.
Education in villages of Punjab
The governmental authorities have established many primary and secondary schools in the villages of Punjab
to provide the villagers with primary and secondary education. Most children in the villages receive primary education from these schools. The number of school going children in the villages of Punjab is quite remarkable. After completing the 10+2 education, the students can pursue higher education in the colleges and universities located in the urban areas. The overall educational scenario in the villages of Punjab is impressive. However, continuous initiatives are being taken by the governmental authorities to further improve the status of rural education.
Agriculture in villages of Punjab
Agriculture has always been the principal occupation of people in the villages of Punjab. Punjab is one of the most agriculturally developed regions in India and contributes hugely to the total agricultural production of India. There are two main harvests in a year in the villages, namely the Rabi or spring and the Kharif. The villagers cultivate the crops like wheat, gram, barley, oil seeds, fodder crops, potatoes, winter vegetables, etc. during the Rabi season. On the other hand, the Kharif or autumn harvest consists of the crops like rice
, gram and peas, bajra, jowar
and the vegetables like chillies, onions, gourd, etc. The villagers practice two system of cropping namely the Dofasli Harsala and Ekfasli Harsala. While, the Dofasli Harsala means two harvests in a period of twelve months, the Ekfasli Harsala means a single crop in a year.
Small scale industries in villages of Punjab
Apart from agriculture, various small-scale and medium scale industries also provide employment in the villages of Punjab. The small-scale industrial units in Punjab
produce bicycle parts, sewing machines, hand tools, machine tools, auto parts, electronic items, sports goods, hosiery, knitwear, textiles, sugar, surgical and leather goods, etc. Most of these products manufactured in the villages of Punjab are at par with the highest quality standards in the world. The other industries providing employment to the villagers in Punjab include the cotton textile industry, sugar industry, dairy industry, Vanaspati ghee industry, woolen textile industry, hosiery industry, sports goods industry, engineering industries, etc.
Fairs and Festivals in villages of Punjab
People in the villages of Punjab are famous all over the country for their wonderful way of celebrating various fairs and festivals. All the festivals celebrated in Punjab are colourful in nature and people perform various traditional music and dance forms as part of celebrating festivals. The major festivals celebrated in the villages of Punjab include Holi
, Maghi Dance
, Gurparav, Tika, Teej, Vasant Panchami
, etc. People perform the popular dance forms like Bhangra
, Dhamal Dance
, Gidda Dance, Sammi Dance
, Jhumar Dance
, Jaago, Luddi, Kikli, Julli, Teeyan Dance
, etc. during the festivals. The villagers also wear their traditional dresses during the festivals. The traditional dresses for men include the turban, kurta-pyjama, loose baggy salwar, loongi or tehmat, the juttis (shoes), etc. On the other hand, the traditional attires for Punjabi women include salwar-kameez-dupatta
, kurta, chunni, etc. There is a particular kind of bangle worn by both Sikh men and women in the villages of Punjab named Kada. Many villagers also use a range of ornaments including bangles, necklaces, rings and earrings, nose-pins, ornaments to pin in the hair, anklets, toe-rings, etc.
Sports in villages of Punjab
Various traditional rural sports also play a major part in celebration of festivals in the villages of Punjab. Generally, three types of sport competitions are held during rural fairs and festivals including the purely rural games like kabaddi
, wrestling, weight-lifting, etc. The modern sports like hockey, football, volleyball, cycling, handball, etc. are also organised during village festivals. Apart from these, the performing sports like acrobatics, passing tractor over the rib-ease, twisting an iron-rod by placing it on Adam's apple, cracking a big stone by placing it on the chest, etc. are held as well. The most frequently played sports in the villages of Punjab include running, jumping, archery, fencing and riding competitions, gymnastic and acrobatic displays, hockey, Tirinjen, Kikli, Gheeta Pathar, Khidu, Kokla Chhapaki, Chicho Chich Ganerian, Lukan Miti (Hide & Seek), Guli Danda, Kidi Kada or Stapoo, Ghaggar Phissi, Rasa Kashi (Tug of War), Martial Art, Kite Flying (Patang Bazi), etc.
The villages of Punjab are a favourite tourist destination for many people in India. They love to visit the villages to experience the wonderful Punjabi way of celebrating festivals. The lush green paddy fields and wonderful scenic beauty of the villages also attracts many people from all over the country.