(Last Updated on : 22/05/2017)
Central Highlands in India can be defined as a bio-geographic zone. These highlands have been formed by the disjunct ranges of the Satpura
Hills. The Malwa Plateau
in the west, the Deccan Plateau
in the south (covering majority of the Indian peninsula) and the Chota Nagpur Plateau
in the east are the most important regions of the Indian subcontinent and the Central Highlands in India.
The Malwa Plateau is located in Rajasthan
, Madhya Pradesh
. The average altitude of the Malwa Plateau is about 500 meters and the landscape generally slopes towards the north. The Chambal River
and its tributaries drain most of the region. The upper reaches of the Mahi River
drain the western part.
Deccan Plateau is a large triangular plateau
, surrounded by the Vindhyas to the north and flanked by the Eastern
and Western Ghats
. It covers a total area of about 1.9 million square kilometers. It is mostly flat, with elevations ranging from 300 to 600 m (1,000 to 2,000 ft).
The average elevation of the plateau is about 2,000 feet (600 m) above sea level. The surface slopes from 3,000 feet (900 m) in the west to 1,500 feet (450 m) in the east. It slopes gently from west to east and gives rise to several peninsular rivers
such as the Godavari
, the Krishna
, the Kaveri
and the Narmada
, which drain into the Bay of Bengal
. This region is mostly semi-arid as it lies on the lower side of both Ghats. Much of the Deccan is encompassed by thorn scrub forest
scattered with small regions of deciduous
broadleaf forest. Climate
in the Deccan ranges from hot summers to mild winters.
Chota Nagpur Plateau
Chota Nagpur Plateau is located in eastern India
and is one of the central highlands in India, covering much of the Indian state
and adjacent parts of Odisha
. Its total area is approximately 65,000 square kilometers and it is made up of three smaller plateaus, namely the Ranchi
, and Kodarma plateaus. The Ranchi Plateau is the largest, with an average elevation of about 700 m (2,300 ft). Much of the plateau is forest
ed, covered by the Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests
. The Hazaribagh Plateau is divided into two parts namely, the higher plateau and the lower plateau. The Hazaribagh town has been built on the Hazaribagh Plateau. It has an average elevation of about 610 m (2,000 ft). The Koderma Plateau or the Hazaribagh Lower Plateau has uniform and gentle slope towards the east. The northern face of the Kodarma Plateau looks like a range of hill
s, but in actuality it is the edge of a plateau, which is about 240 meters from the level of the Gaya
Plain. Huge reserves of metal
ores and coal
have been found in the Chota Nagpur Plateau.