Ranchi accounts for near about 40 per cent of the total mineral resources of the country and Ranchi alone accounts for more than 50 per cent of the total production. Ranchi is popularly known as the 'Manchester of the East'. The name of this capital city of Jharkhand was derived from the name of a bird that was considered religious and sacred by the local people.
Initially, up to the year 1927, Ranchi was called as 'Rachi'. Ranchi was formerly called as the village 'Archi'. This capital city of Jharkhand is considered as a well-known commercial, political, educational as well as industrial hub of the eastern region of the country. Moreover, it was also regarded as an agricultural locality.
History of Ranchi
During the Jharkhand movement of forming a separate state for tribal areas of northern Orissa, Southern Bihar, eastern Chhattisgarh and western West Bengal, Ranchi was the prominent centre. On 15th of November, 2000, a separate state of Jharkhand was created. The headquarters of Ranchi District is Ranchi. Previously, name of Ranchi District was Lohardaga. This old district came into existence after the formation of non-regulation South - West frontier in 1831-32. In the year 1899, the district's name was changed from Lohardaga to Ranchi. This name was kept after the name of a little village, which is at present comprised within the zone of its headquarters.
Geography of Ranchi
Ranchi covers a total area mainly the municipal area of around 141 sq kms. This city is located at an altitude of 729 metres above the sea level. Ranchi is well positioned on the southern portion of the Chota Nagpur Plateau that constitutes the eastern border of the Deccan Plateau system. Geography of Ranchi has been gifted with numerous natural attractions and popularly, it is called the "City of Waterfalls". Some of the very popular waterfalls of Ranchi are Hundru, Jonha Falls, Dasham, Hirni and Panchghat. Subarnarekha River and its tributaries form the river system of this region. Several huge dams have been constructed in order to meet the water necessities of the local people. This capital city of Jharkhand basically has a mountainous landscape. Further, its amalgamation with the dense humid forest makes sure that it enjoys a moderately modest climate. Ranchi generally enjoys a sub-tropical climate. Its temperature varies from 37 degrees to 20 degrees Celsius during the summer season and it ranges from 25 degrees to 8 degrees Celsius during the winter season. The annual rainfall of Ranchi is near about 1430 mm.
Demography of Ranchi
According to the Population Census in the year 2011, Ranchi Urban Agglomeration has a population of 1,120,374, making it the 46th largest urban city in India and third largest city in Jharkhand after Jamshedpur and Dhanbad. The males constitute 51.3 percent of the population and females 48.7 percent. Ranchi is the second most populous district of Jharkhand after Dhanbad. The city of Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 87.68 percent, which is higher than the national average of 74.04 percent. The male literacy is 92.48 percent and female literacy is 82.48 percent. In Ranchi, 13 percent of the population is under 6 years of age.
Education in Ranchi
There are several popular primary and higher secondary schools in Ranchi. This city has a proper education system. Some of the major schools of Ranchi are LEBB High School, Chotanagpur Girl's School, Balika Siksha Bhawan, Surendranath Centenary School, Jawahar Vidya Mandir, Guru Nanak HR School, St. Xaviers, St. John's High School, Kendriya Vidyalayas and many more. This city is well known as the centre of education. Moreover, the educational system of Ranchi also attracts students from neighbouring states and cities. Some of the renowned institutes of this town offering higher education to the students are CIP (Central Institute of Psychiatry), BIT (Birla Institute of Technology), RIMS (Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences), NIFFT (National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology), etc. The private schools of Ranchi are affiliated to several national Boards like ICSE and CBSE. While most of the government aided schools are affiliated to Jharkhand Academic Council.
Tourism in Ranchi
Tourism of Ranchi comprises a huge number of attractions. It is the home to several beautiful falls. There are almost 10 falls across this city. The tourism spots of Ranchi attract numerous tourists throughout the world. Some of the main attractions of Ranchi are Jonha Falls, Rajrappa Temple, Pahari Temple, Durga Badi, Jagannathpur Temple, Surya Temple, Parasnath or Shikharjee (Jain's pilgrimage), Ramakrishna Mission and Ashram, Dewri Temple, Doranda Jain Mandir, Buddha Vihar, Chhotanagpur Buddha Society, Nepal House, Doranda Ranchi, Tapoban Mandir, and more.
Ranchi is well accessed with the rest of the country. Like for instance, Ranchi is connected by regular airlines services with Kolkata, Patna, Mumbai, Lucknow and New Delhi. Moreover, Ranchi is on the South Eastern Railway zone and is directly connected with major cities like Kolkata, Patna, Rourkela, Delhi. Last but not the least, Ranchi is located on National Highway No.23 and 33 and Ranchi is directly connected by regular bus services with all the main places in the state and also outside the state.