History of Simdega District
In the ancient times, Simdega District was known by the name of Biru-Kaishalpur Pargana, which was reigned by Raja Katangadeo. After his demise, Maharaja Shivakarna subjugated it. Munda Tribe and Kharia tribe entered into this part in 1441 A.D and Oraon tribe settled here in about 1503 A.D from Rohta Tribe. For some time it was part of the Kalinga Empire and subsequently in 1336 A.D Harideo of Gang dynasty that is the royal family of Ganga Vanshi Gajapati of Kalinga-Utkala Empire was made king of Biru. The ancestors of Royal family still reside at Biru. At present, Biru is situated at a distance of about 11 km from District headquarter, Simdega District. Ganga Bishun Rohilla was famous freedom fighter from Simdega.
Geography of Simdega District
The landscape of Simdega District is formed of hills and undulating plateau. In the district 1194.50 sq. km areas are covered with forest Simdega district is primarily settled by the Scheduled Tribes with 70.2 per cent population. This is the highest among all the districts of Jharkhand closely followed by Gumla district with 67.2 per cent Scheduled Tribe population. The majority of the Scheduled Tribes belong to the Christian faith.
Demography of Simdega District
According to the 2011 census report the total population of 599813. It comprises of 299905 male members and 299908 females.
Economy of Simdega District
The agriculture in Simdega District is very primitive and under developed. Majority of the rural populace depends on traditional methods of agriculture. Other problems in the agriculture sector include lack of irrigation facilities, absence of scientific inputs, poor marketing facilities, under developed infrastructure etc. The agriculture is mainly dependent on seasonal rain. Even though the average rainfall of the district is 1100-1200 mm due to lack of rainwater harvesting techniques most of the rainwater remain unutilised. Despite a large population of milch cattle, yield of milk in the district is very poor. Lack of awareness coupled with local varieties of breed makes it less productive. Attempts are being taken to support the dairy sector and make it more cost effective. As a result artificial insemination centers and sub-centers have been opened at various places in the district.
Jharkhand is known for its rich mineral resources. However presences of important minerals are yet to be explored in the District. The main mineral resources found in Simdega district are limestone and stone chips. Despite having potential natural resources and various raw materials for small, medium and major industries the sector very much under developed in Simdega. There are no single industrial units existing in Simdega, which is a clear indicator of lack of development of the district.
Tendoo leaves found in the district in major scale but all are exported to other states. The district has also having favourable conditions of Tasar rearing, Lac cultivation, Timber industry, Handicrafts, Electrical, Auto-mobile etc. Simdega is very near to the state capital Ranchi. It also shares the boundary with the industrial town Rourkela of Orissa and Jashpur District of Chattisgarh. However trade and commerce as a source of economy is still in its infancy. The major exports of the district are paddy and other forest products. Food grains and other things of daily use are imported on large scale. Even though the district Bazar Samitee exists it lacks necessary infrastructure, staff and other facilities. Local trade and business is mainly centered upon local hat bazaars and weakly Hats.