(Last Updated on : 11/04/2014)
Administration of Arunachal Pradesh tribes is known by different names and have specific functions assigned to them. Each tribal group has their own traditional system as far as administration of the society, maintenance of law and order and socio-cultural life of the people are concerned. The systems are institutionalized in the form of village council of elders. They are called differently by different tribes like Tsorgen of the Monpas, Jung of the Sherdukpen, Mele of the Akas, Buliang of the Apatanis, Kebang of the Adis, Abbala of the Idu Mishmis, Pharai of Kaman Mishmis, Mokchup of the Khamti, Ngothun of the Noctes, Wangsu-Wangsa of the Wanchos and so on.
Tsorgen of Monpa Tribe
Monpa Tsorgens are elected chiefs to maintain law and order and welfare of the people. The system has undergone several changes. The elected Tsorgens have been increased and autonomous elected village councils were established. Tsorgens are elected in a systematic manner.
Jung of the Sherdukpen Tribe
Jung of the Sherdukpen Tribe consists of the village headman, as chairman, few members, one courier and a watchman. They decide cases by general consensus of opinion and the ultimate decision is given by the headman. The courier and the watchman have their own duties to be discharged.
Mele of Aka tribe
Mele of Aka tribe is also popularly called 'Raiz'. The Mele is constituted of a headman, his two juniors and the members of the community. Their functions are similar to that of the Jung of the Sherdukpen tribe.
Buliang of Apatani Tribe
Buliang is the name given to the Local Self government of Apatani Tribe is a council consisting of clan representatives. However it does not have the centralised authority over the inhabitants.
Gingdung of Nishi Tribe
Gingdung of Nishi Tribe is a system where a middle man tries to settle matters through peaceful negotiations based on traditional customs, manner and society norms. They have no power to exert while settling disputes. However a wise advice is accepted if found satisfactory by the parties at dispute.
Kebang of Adi Tribe
Kebang of Adi Tribe exercises the highest legal and judicial powers. Each Adi village has a Kebang.
Abbala of Idu-Mishmi tribe
Abbala of Idu-Mishmi tribe decides only judicial matters as per customary laws. They have no authority for village administration.
Mokchup of Khamti tribe
Mokchup of Khamti tribe is also called Mokchup-khai-kham. They also act on the basis of laws, procedure and rules of morality and religion as laid down in Thamasat - a sacred text.
Ngothun of the Nocte tribe
Ngothun of the Nocte tribe is a well organized village council of elders. Chieftainship is also prevalent among this tribe who acts on the advice of the elders. The administration and judicial system is democratic.
Wangsu-Wangsa of the Wancho tribe
Wangsu-Wangsa of the Wancho tribe is also a well organised village council. It has a system of administration of justice and management of village affairs that is democratic. The chiefs do not rule arbitrarily and act on the advice of the village elders.
Tribes of Arunachal Pradesh have their own system of local self-governments. The genesis of the system is almost obscure though. The peaceful manner in which the various groups of people have been maintaining their socio-cultural-religious and political life justify the existence of a democratic system.
These village councils of almost all the tribes have a similar manner of functioning. They also have common features.
The council deals with the maintenance of paths and bridges; water-supply and sanitation of a village. The dates of communal hunting are fixed by them. As far as development is concerned the local officials have worked it through the local councils.