(Last Updated on : 26/08/2013)
Pravritti in Natyashastra
refers to specific human behaviours varying from region to region. It divides India into four broad zones accordingly, to facilitate the understanding of them, so that Vritti
or the dramatic style may find proper expression through the required portrayal in the text as well as performance. The four Pravritti are dakshinatya i.e. southern, avanti
i.e. western, audra magadhi i.e. eastern, and pancala madhyama i.e. north-western and northern. In each, behaviour varies due to predominance of different vrittis, and requires careful study by the playwright and actor so that description and performance achieve the accurate representation.
Characteristics of Pravritti
Pravritti gives the detailed information regarding dress types, languages used, manners and customs followed and professions engaged in the different regions of the land. Pravritti is in the sense of Nivedana (making it known). The different types of Pravritti have certain common characteristics prominently. But, since people hail from different countries, wear different kinds of dress, speak many languages and follow many customs, the fourfold classification is thus provided. As there are four different styles (Vrittis) such as Bharati, Sattvati, Kaisiki and Arabhati concerned with different sets of people and countries, the practical usages (Pravrittis) are also similarly dealt with.
Types of Pravritti
Dakshinatya Pravritti deals with the southern region of India. Southern people have many kinds of dance styles songs and musical instruments. They employ the Kaisiki Vrtti mostly and cultivate efficient gestures. Countries in and around the mountains of Malaya
and Kalapaijara are known as Daksinapatha. All the areas between the Southern Sea adopt the Dakshinatya Pravritti viz. Kosala
, Yavana, Khasa
, the Dramida Andhra, Maharashtra
, Venna and Vanavasika. Avanti, Vidisa, Saurastra, Malava, Sindhu, Sauvira, Anarta, Arbudeyaka, Dasarna
, Traipura and Martikavata always adopt the Avanti Pravritti. The dramatic performances by these inhabitants are mainly concerned with Sattvati and Kaisiki styles.
The eastern areas comprising of Anga
, Vanga, Kalinga
, Odhra, Magadha
, Pundra, Nepala, Antargira, Bahirgira, Plavangama, Malada, Mallavartaka, Brahmottara, Bhargava, Margava, Pragjyotisa, Pulinda, Videha and Tamralipta take to the local usage known as Audhra Magadhi. The same is the case with the other areas mentioned in the Puranas as falling within the area eastern tract and audhra -magadhi Pravritti is to be employed in their productions too. The region including Pancala, Surasena
, Hastinapura, Valhika, Sakala, Madra, and Usmara, contiguous either to the Himalayas or the northern banks of the Ganges adopts the Pancala-Madhyama Pravritti. The Pancala Magadhi Pravritti goes in with Sattvati and Arabhati Vrittis mostly.
Pravrittis as laid down before for different regions should be adopted by experts while sponsoring dramatic performances.