(Last Updated on : 05-04-2014)
Geography of Azamgarh District comprises level plain without any hills, the only variations in the surface being caused by the dire lands along the streams that drain it. Except in the proximity of the Ghaghara River
, the region slopes gently towards the south-east. Topography of Azamgarh District also includes depressions of varying depth and extent in which the surface drainage of the interior collects. Further, there are some high lying plains.
Geography of Azamgarh District also comprises some major river system and water resources. Ghaghara River is the main river flowing through the district. The river has its origin in the mountains of Kumaon and Nepal. Ghaghara River makes the northern boundary of Azamgarh District and separates it from Gorakhpur. Among the minor channels which traverse the district is Tons River
. This river takes its rise many kilometers beyond the borders of Azamgarh in Faizabad District. It flows parallel with the Ghaghara till it caters the district around 9.6 km north-east of Mahul. It is soon after joined by a small tributary called the Majhoi on the borders of Pargana Nizamabad. Tons River is perennial but during the dry months of the year only a sluggish current of water flows in the bottom of its bed. Lakes of the district are numerous but in many cases of considerable size. The more significant of them are, in the southern tract, those known as Kotail, Jamuawan, Gumadih, Kumbh, Pukh, Asaune and the largest of all the Gambhiran. In the northern section of Azamgarh District, the prominent lakes are Koila, Kasila-Gasila, Kaili, Duhia Birna, Ara Telhnan and Manchhil.
The climate of Azamgarh District is moist and relaxing except in winter and hot seasons. The year may be divided into four seasons. The period from March to the mid of June is the hot season. The south west monsoon season continues up to the end of September. The succeeding period lasting till the end of November is the post monsoon or transition season. The period from December to February is the cold season. The average annual rainfall in the district is 1021.3 mm. On an average there are 50 rainy days in a year in this district of Uttar Pradesh. This number varies from 48 at Deogaon to 52 at Azamgarh. For agriculture purpose the most critical period is rainy season from June to October.