The climate of the district is characterized by hot summer and is generally dry except during the south-west monsoon season. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to May. The period from June to September constitute the south west monsoon season, while October and November from the post-monsoon season. The rainfall in the district, in general increases from the south-west towards the north east. About 85% of annual rainfall is received during the south-west monsoon season. July being the peak rainy month. The variation in the Annual rainfall from year is not large. The normal Annual rainfall of the district is 1044.5m.m. There is a meteorological observatory, station at headquarters Adilabad. The cold weather commences towards the end of November when the temperature begins to fall rapidly. December is generally the coldest month, with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 29 C and the minimum daily is 15 C.
The relative humidity is high generally during the south-west monsoon season. The air is generally dry during the rest of the year, the distinct part of the year being the summer season when the humidity in the afternoon is 25%. During the south-west monsoon season the sky is heavily clouded. There is rapid decrease of clouds in the post-monsoon season. During the rest of the year the sky is mostly clear of light clouds. Winds are light to moderate with some strengthening in the period from May to August. During the post-monsoon and cold season, winds blow mostly from the east or north-east. By March, south-westerlies and westerlies start blowing and continue during the rest of summer. The sought west monsoon season winds are mostly from directions between south-west and north-west.
The Sahyadriparvat or Satnala range traverses the district from the north-west to the south-east for about 281.5 Kms. In this range the Mahbubghat is the hightest peak. In the eastern portion of the district some hills and hillocks are of minor importance.
The Godavari River is the most important river that drains the district. The Pengange, the Wardha River, and the Pranahita River come next importance. The Kadam and the Peddavagu are tributaries of River Godavari. Besides these, there are also rivulets like the Satnala, the Swarna vagu, and the Suddavagu which drain the district. The Godavari, which is the largest river in peninsular India, rises in the Western Ghats mountain range at Trambakeshwar near Nasik in Maharastra state and enters this district near Basara in Mudhole Taluk. This mighty river forms the boundary of the district separating the district from Nizamabad and Karimnagar districts and skirts the southern borders of Chennur, Luxettipet, Khanapur, Nirmal and Mudhole taluks. The penganga forms part of the northern boundary of the district in Adilabad, while the wardha and the Pranahita from the northern and eastern boundaries of the district, skirting east - while Sirpur and Chennur taluks respectively. The Kadam River takes its origin at Bothai village in erstwhile Sirpur and Chennur taluks respectively and flowing across the Bothai taluk it enters Khanapur at Paspula and finally falls into Godavari. The Peddawagu flows across the erstwhile taluks of Asifabad and Sirpur.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the district. The geographical area of the district is 4004035 acres and the land use under different types is: forest (42.8%), Land put to non-agricultural uses (3.7%) and net area sown 35.4%. There is seen a lack of cropping pattern in the existing in the district. The principal crops of the district are Jowar, paddy, Cotton, Wheat, Maize, Chillies, Sugarcane and Soya. The main crop grown in the district is Jowar which accounts for 31.8% of the total cropped area. Paddy production account for 10.8% pulses and each crop, and non food crops for 34.7% of the total cropped area. The Southern part of the area is better developed agriculturally due to the availability of better irrigation facilities here. Cotton occupies an important place in the agriculture sector of this district. With the above average rainfall, the district and minor irrigation facilities in general is suitable for horticulture comprising of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Sericulture is an activity making roads into this non-traditional area, with the implementation of National Sericulture project from 1989-90. The major constraint hampering the progress of sericulture activity has been the marketing of cocoons. In addition to the traditional mulberry, cocoons, tusser is another important area suitable in this forest area. The agro- climatic conditions are most suitable for sheep and livestock rearing, and animal husbandry is a major sector in the agriculture of the Adilabad district.