History of Jalandhar District
During ancient times, kingdom or district of Jalandhar consists of the entire Upper Doabas from the Ravi River to the Satluj River. As per the Padma Purana, as quoted by General Conningham, the place got its name from the great Daitya King Danava Jalandhara. Entire Punjab and the whole of the present district of Jalandhar belonged to the Indus Valley Civilization. Mohenjodaro and Harappa are the historical sites where the remains of the great Indus Valley Civilization were found extensively. The archaeological exploration carried on in recent years has pushed the antiquity of the district of Jalandhar of the Harappa period. The earliest mention of Jalandhar in history was in the region of Kanishka, the Kushan King belonging to the northern parts of India in whose Buddhist theologians held a council close to Jalandhar during 100 AD to accumulate and arrange the holy writings of Buddhism and to arrive at a settlement among its several sects. Jalandhar served as the capital of the Indian state of Punjab from independence in the year 1947, until Chandigarh was constructed in the year 1953.
Geography of Jalandhar District
Jalandhar district is situated on the highly irrigated plain, lying between the Sutlej River and Beas River. The district, which possesses major rail and road connections, also acts as a market for various agricultural products. The manufactures include leather goods, textiles, wood products, and sporting goods. The district is 350 kilometres away from Delhion the Delhi-Amritsar Highway. Jalandhar is bordered by the district of Ludhiana in the East, Hosiharpur in the North, Kapurthala in the West and the district of Ferozepur in the South. It is conveniently connected by train and road.
The month of June is normally counted as the hottest month where the maximum mean daily temperature is about 41§C and the minimum mean daily temperature is at 27§C. With the arrival of monsoon by the last of the month of June or in the beginning of July, temperature during day drops down substantially. However, nights in summer remain warm. As a result of huge gathering of moisture in the monsoon air, the type of weather is generally uncomfortable and sultry, in between these rains. The month of January is normally considered to be the coldest month when maximum mean daily temperature is about 19§C and the minimum mean daily temperature is about 6§C. In winter, cold waves hit the district of Jalandhar in the back of western disturbances and the minimal temperature at times, goes below the freezing point of water.
The climate in general is dry apart from the brief south-west monsoon season. With the year being divided into four seasons, the cold season starts from mid-November till the starting of the month of March. The succeeding time till the end of June in the summer season, July, August and September's first half forms the South-West monsoon season. From mid-September till the mid-November is the transition or post monsoon period.
In the Jalandhar district, the average annual rainfall is 703.0 mm. In this district, rainfall normally starts to increase from the south-west to the north-east and differ from 892.3 mm at Adampur to 551.3 mm at Nakodar. At times, rain falls like thunder showers in the month of June and in alliance with passing western disturbances in the winter season.
Demography of Jalandhar District
As per the 2001 Census provisional, Jalandhar district possesses an area of 3,401 square kilometers and the district holds a total population of 19,53,508 persons including 9,26,973 females and 10,26,535 males.
Culture of Jalandhar District
The culture of India is a synthetic amalgam of various ideologies. Fairs form a burning symbol of the cultural life in India. The People of Punjab are fond of festivals and fairs. People belonging to all communities take part in the fairs. Some of the major fairs in the district of Jalandhar include the Hariballabh Sangeet Mela, which is organized to commemorate the sant-musician, Swami Hariballabh at Devi Talab in close proximity to the Samadhi of the saint, every year, from the 27th of December to the 30th of December. Musicians and classical singers of repute from various parts of the country take part in this fair. The Fair of Baba Sodal is linked with Sodal, a small boy respected as a baby-God. This fair is organized mourn his death anniversary at his Samadhi. It is held in Bhadon month which matches with the middle parts of the month of September
Administration of Jalandhar District
The district of Jalandhar comprises of 5 tehsils/subdivisions including Phillaur, Jalandhar-I, Jalandhar II, Nakodar and Shahkot. Apart from these, the district has 5 sub-tehsils which include Adampur, Nurmahal, Bhogpur, Goryan and Kartarpur. Jalandhar is divided into ten development blocks including Jalandhar West, Jalandhar East, Bhogpur, Adampur, Shahkot, Lohian, Nakodar, Phillaur, Nurmahal and Rurka Kalan. As per the 2000-2001 figures of the Statistical Office of the district, the district possesses 956 inhabited villages.
Education in Jalandhar District
There are a number of educational institutions in the district of Jalandhar. Among them, Kanya Maha Vidyalaya was the most prominent one. It was founded by Local Arya Samaj in the year 1886, as a school for girls, and named as Kanya Maha Vidyalaya in the year 1896. Beginning as a school, the college later attained the status of a Post Graduate Institution. Courses offered in this college include Arts, Science and Commerce up to degree level with honours in Hindi, English, Punjabi and Psychology and masters degree in Hindi, English and Music (Instrumental and Vocal). Another college in Jalandhar is the Lyallpur Khalsa College, which was founded in the year 1908, at Lyallpur in Pakistan. The college was shifted in the wake of India's partition in the year 1947, and reopened in Jalandhar in the year 1948. Courses offered in this college include Science (Non Medical and Medical), Arts and Commerce till degree level. B.Sc. in Economics is also offered in this college. It also offers post-graduate instructions in Political Science, Punjabi, Economics, History and Mathematics. PG Diploma in Marketing Management, Industrial Relations and Personal Management, Diploma in Agriculture Marketing Management, Diploma in Business Management and Diploma in Labour Laws and Personal Management are also provided in the college. Various other educational institutions in Jalandhar include Doaba College, Jalandhar, Government Arts & Sports College, Jalandhar, Banarsi Dass Arya Girls College, Jalandhar Cantonment, Government Collage of Education, Jalandhar, University College, Jalandhar, etc.
Economy of Jalandhar District
Jalandhar is the biggest in the world for manufacturing leather tool pouches and aprons with major European and American customers purchasing from several factories in Jalandhar. The district was also a hub of the Green revolution of India in the 60s. It is also famous for its electrical goods industry. Manufacturers like Apex Electricals and Standard Switchgears are situated in Jalandhar district. Jalandhar is also home to the International sports market. Apart from the industrial hubs, Jalandhar is also famous for the organization of festivals.
Tourism in Jalandhar District
There are various things to see in the Jalandhar district. Two fine Muslim tombs are there out of the Nakodar town, located in close proximity to each other. These tombs are declared protected monuments by the Archaeological Departments. One of the two tombs was constructed in A.D.1612, during the initial period of the rule of Jahangir and the other tomb was erected in 1657 A.D which falls in the closing period of the rule of Shah Jahan. The tomb of Mohammed Momin was built over the earthly remains of Ustad Muhammed Momin also called Ustad Ustad Muhammed Husseini alias Hafizak, who was a tambura player of Khan-I-Khanan, one of the Navaratnas in the Akbar's court in AD 1021. Dakhni sarai regarded as the finest and well-preserved specimens of Mughal caravan sarais constructed along the old highway. The tomb of Haji Jamal is situated close to Muhammed Momin's tomb. Haji Jamal's tomb was constructed over the mortal remains of Haji Jamal, a tambura player, the pupil of Ustad Muhammed Husseini, during the closing period of the rule of Shah Jahan.
Another major thing to see in Jalandhar is the Mughal Bridge located to the south of Mahlian Kalan village on Nakodar- Kapurthala road. It is at a distance of twelve kilometers from Nakodar and the bridge was also constructed during the reign of Shah Jahan. The ancient site in Katpalon village was located 7 kilometers to the east of Phillaur, was excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India in the year 1976-77. Nurmahal is due to the upbringing of Nur Jahan, the wife of Emperor Jahangir.
Visiting information to Jalandhar
How to reach Jalandhar
By Rail: Jalandhar can be reached by train which arrives and departs from the station located in the city. The railway terminus situated in Jalandhar is at the Delhi-Amritsar Railway Line.
By Air: The RajaSansi Airport in Amritsar is the nearest airport to Jalandhar and it is located 90 kilometres away from the district.
Jalandhar is, thus, one of the most beautiful destinations in the sate of Punjab as well as in India which serves as a favourable tourist destination. This district is considered to have appeared from the ocean. As per the Padma Purana, the sacred historical treatises belonging to the Hindus, it got its name from the 'Daitya' or demon King, Jalandhra. The place boasts of a number of historical edifices.