According to the 2001 census report, Gadwal had a population of 51,428 inhabitants. Males constitute 51% of the population and females constitute 49% of the population In Gadwal, 13% of the population is less than six years of age. Gadwal has an average literacy rate of 57% which is lower than the national average literacy rate of 59.5%. The male and the female literacy rate is 67% and 48% respectively.
Gadwal is famous for the Chennakesava Swamy Temple, built by the Rajas of Gadwal in the 17th century. Gadwal is also famous for handloom sarees spun in cotton and silk known as Gadwal silk. At a distance of 20 km from Gadwal is the Kurumurthy village, which is the site of Sri Kurumurthy Srinivasa Swamy Temple.