(Last Updated on : 24/04/2015)
Saptanga Theory which has been mentioned in Arthashastra includes all the seven organs of the state which has been separately elaborated among the various volumes of Arthashastra. It explains the role of the king who has been treated as the life of the state and who shall be the defender of Dharma, who is supposed to be Dharmic, enthusiastic, powerful, aggressive, decisive, fearless and free from self indulgence. Along with this, the other organs include the Amatya or the ministers who shall occupy the next position in the hierarchy just after the king who shall be the top most public official responsible for carrying out the public relations and representing the kingdom in the absence of the king. The third element of the state is the Janapad which comprises of the territory and the people, the mountains, rivers, forests etc which are included in the territory of the kingdom. Forts form the fourth element of the state which defines the construction of the forts and their security which has been elaborated in the Construction of Forts in Book II of Arthashastra. Treasury formed the fifth element of the state which is supposed to be enriched with all the sources of taxes and collection of revenue to be deposited in state treasury. This also includes the Army which is responsible for securing the boundaries of the kingdom; this brings us closer to the friend who shall be the biggest ally of the conqueror in confronting the enemy. Arthashastra lays down a number of features for selecting an ideal friend who shall have royal birth and will be available at times of crisis. Alongwith this Shastra also includes a list of Council of Ministers who shall assist the Amatya or the prime minister.
Thus the Saptanga theory mainly includes all those who shall carry out the internal administration of the state for the king.
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