(Last Updated on : 02/09/2009)
Dhrupad gharanas had spread to other families in various parts of the country, upholding their ancient culture, some of them also tracing their line to Tansen. And the sheer versatility of the few families, like variations in rhythmic artistry, or dhrupads, sung in honour of the Almighty, gave the gharana even more impetus to continue in their musical pursuit. Some of them also resort to Islamic chants in their tradition.
Some of the remarkable dhrupad gharanas are the Darbhanga tradition of Bihar, represented principally by the Malik family, who trace their origin to Tansen`s lineage. The founders of this style were Radha Krishna and Karta Ram, who were followers of the Gauhar-bani. For generations, they were court musicians in the Darbhanga court.
Unlike the Dagar gharanas, which use natural voice, the Darbhanga singers` recourse to a more stylised mode of voice production. Also, they lay accent on the rhythmic aspect of the composition in their singing. The rhythmic variations and permutations they offer are brilliant. The leading singers of this style comprise the late Ram Chatur Malik, Siyaram Tiwari, Abhay Narayan Malik and Vidur Malik.
: The Dagar lineage goes back to ancient centuries in history, with the foremost member known to have been a contemporary of Swami Haridas, guru of Tansen. However, the leading initiator was another man, who is supposed to have transferred to Islam from Hinduism. From then on, the family had no looking back, with generations after generations turning out to be gifted singers, ingrained with the melodious vocal wonder. Sometimes they were paired contrasts, with a masculine voice competing with a mellowed counterpart. However, standing amongst all odds, the Dagar family has successfully preserved their traditional gharana, in times of extreme unfriendliness and adversity.
: Apart from the Dagar gharanas the Talwandi tradition also demands attention. It is associated with the western parts of India, specifically with Punjab. Prominent singers of the tradition include Muhammad Hafiz Khan and Muhammad Afzal Khan.
Darbhanga Gharana: Amongst two of the living Dhrupad gharanas Darbhanga tradition is one, apart from the Dagar tradition. Darbhanga Gharana of dhrupad is represented by the Mallik family. Karta Ram and Radha Krishna who were once the court musicians for the Nawab of Darbhanga, are considered the founders of the tradition. Starting with the alaap and then singing the main composition, distinguished the performance of the Darbhanga Gharana of dhrupad singers. Rhythmic aspect is emphasized in this tradition. Famous singers of this gharanas include the late Ram Chatur Mallik, Vidur Mallik, Abhaya Narayan Mallik, and Prem Kumar Mallik.
: The ornamentation and rhythmic application gained a dimension in this gharanas. The gharana originated in the royal state of Bettiah in Bihar. Pyar Khan of Seni Gharana and Haider Khan are considered to be the major influence on this gharana.