(Last Updated on : 25/01/2011)
Tribes of Tripura, who inhabit a major part of Tripura, largely resemble the Tibeto- Burman origin. The territory is inhabited by 19 tribes who are enlisted as scheduled tribes under the Constitution of India
. These tribes include Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal, Chakma, Garo, Halam, Jamatia and Khasia. The Kuki including seventeen sub-tribes - Lepcha, Lushai, Magh, Munda, Noatia, Orang, Riang, Santhal, Tripuri and Uchai.A mong these the dominant tribes are Tripuri, Riang, Jamatia, Chakma, Halam, Noatia and Magh and so on. Largely Tripura is inhabited by Tripuri , Reang, Chakma, Mog, Halam and Murasin.
The Chakma tribes are found in Tripura's south-eastern hills bordering Chittagong Hill tract. Traditionally they are good cultivators. Animal husbandry, basketry, horticulture, foraging, fishing and weaving are the subsidiary occupation of this tribe. The language spoken by the Chakma tribe is very much related to Bengali language
. The Chakma tribal group usually possesses faith in the Buddhist tradition which is scattered in various parts of Tripura.
The Riang tribes are found in Mizoram
and the Chittagong Hill Tract. In Tripura, their main concentration areas are in the eastern hills. They prefer to live in a village which is situated on the plateau of a hill. This tribe can be located back up to 15th century which is ruled by a chief who gets a title of Rai that marks him distinctly. In case of a major or minor judgment the chief is the soul authority to deliver the last word. Cultivation is major occupation of this tribe. This community hardly possesses any access to education which keeps it restricted towards traditions. The festivals of this tribe are largely marked by the faith, age old customs and traditions of the land.
Tripuri has two synonyms- Puran Tripuri and Dev Varma. The dynasty has ancestral relation with the lunar dynasty of the Mahabharata
. They are found all over Tripura though the western and northern parts of the Tripura are the main concentrated areas. This is one of the oldest tribes of the land which comprises almost 50 percent of the total population of Tripura. The social structure of this community is quite simple which largely depends on agriculture for its subsistence.
Mog tribes are claimed to have originated from Arakan, Burmese and Chinese clan who have migrated to Tripura during 957 AD. This clan largely believes in Buddhism
they too depend largely on agriculture for their subsistence.
Halam tribes are supposed to be the offshoots of Kuki tribes who have settled in Tripura and accepted their raja's rule. Primarily this tribe practices Vaishnava faith and Saka cult. Originally there are twelv
e groups found in Halam tribes which are divided into 16 sub sections.
Murasin Tribes who inhabit the area are distinctively marked by the tradition of hanging the horns of dead animals. This clan which inhabits the regions of Tripura had been a part of the royal army of Tripura.
Thus the land of Tripura is widely inhabited by a number of tribes who form a major part of Tripura. Mostly depending on agriculture, the tribes of Tripura largely depend on the subsistence agriculture for their livelihood.