(Last Updated on : 11/09/2015)
Short-Toed Snake Eagle is an Indian bird
with a scientific name "Circaetus gallicus
", also known as short-toed eagle, is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family of Accipitridae. The prey includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, buzzards and harriers.
Concentration of Short-Toed Snake Eagle
Short-Toed Snake Eagle is an old World species found throughout the Mediterranean basin, into Russia and the Middle East, and parts of Asia, mainly in the Indian states
like Himachal Pradesh
, Jammu and Kashmir
region and also in the eastern part of India like West Bengal
, and also further east in some Indonesian islands. Those present on the northern edge of the Mediterranean and other parts of Europe migrate mainly to sub-Saharan Africa north of the equator, leaving in September to October and returning in April to May. In the Middle and Far East the populations are resident. In Europe, it is most numerous in Spain where it is fairly common but elsewhere it is rare in many parts of its range. A bird on the Isles of Scilly, Britain, in October 1999 was the first confirmed record for that country.
Residence of Short-Toed Snake Eagle
Short-Toed Snake Eagle is found in open cultivated plains, arid stony deciduous scrub areas and foothills and semi-desert areas. It requires trees for nesting.
Structure of Short-Toed Snake Eagle
The adult Short-Toed Snake Eagle are 62-67 cm (2 ft 0 in-2 ft 2 in) long with a 170-185 cm (5 ft 7 in-6 ft 1 in) wingspan and weigh 1.2-2.3 kg (2.6-5.1 lb). They can be recognised in the field by their predominantly white underside, the upper parts being greyish brown. The chin, throat and upper breast are a pale, earthy brown. The tail has 3 or 4 bars. The additional indications are an owl-like rounded head, brightly yellow eyes and lightly barred under wing.
Behaviour of Short-Toed Snake Eagle
Short-toed snake eagle is an accomplished flyer and spends more time on the wing than do most members of its genus. It favours soaring over hill slopes and hilltops on updraughts, and it does much of its hunting from this position at a height of up to 500 m (1,600 ft). When quartering open country it frequently hovers like a kestrel. When it soars it does so on flattish wings.
Prey of Short-Toed Snake Eagle
The prey of Short-toed snake eagle is mostly reptiles, mainly snakes, but also some lizards. Sometimes they become entangled with larger snakes and battle on the ground. Occasionally, they prey on small mammals up to the size of a rabbit, and rarely birds and large insects.
Traits of Short-Toed Snake Eagle
Short-Toed Snake Eagle is generally very silent. On occasions, it emits a variety of musical whistling notes. When breeding, it lays only one egg. It can live up to 17 years. Short-toed snake eagle has suffered a steep decline in numbers and range in Europe and is now rare and still decreasing in several countries due to changes in agriculture and land use. It needs protection. In the middle and far eastern part of its range, this species is not yet threatened.