(Last Updated on : 27/10/2015)
India, a land so ancient, both in culture and history has always witnessed a diverse population, geography and climate. Right from the very beginning, it has been a treasure of rich art and architecture, which replicate an eye for detail, a love for color and form the inherently artistic individuality of the people of India.
Precisely, from the age old times, there has been an amalgamation of foreign and native influence that has shaped the course of Indian art
. Indian artists and their paintings are world famous! There is simply no comparison!
One famous and very distinct style of Indian art is Mithila Painting or as commonly known, Madhubani painting, discovered by William Archer, a local Collector of a small province in 1934.
Women of the Mithila region of northern Bihar
, used to do wall and floor paintings, for centuries, on certain occasions of marriage and other domestic ceremony. The images, although used to be similar, but individual style of canvas were developed by women of different castes. This painting an articulation of peoples' compassion and understanding for life and culture.
During the Ramayana
age, king Janakpuri had assigned the task to few artists of painting, sketches of Sita's marriage to Lord Rama
. This was the origin of the famous art style of Madhubani paintings. These paintings are cloaked in archeological discovery of the Indian history of the place Mithila from where its name originated.
As stated earlier, this style of painting had been a part of Indian art for ages, although hardly anyone was aware of it. It came into spotlight when once, William Archer had gone for inspection to the villages of Mithila, after a major earthquake, found these beautiful work of art developed on almost all the walls and floors of the village, liked them so much that he photographed them. He was so impressed with the artwork and the detail involved in each of the art piece, that he and his wife brought them to the modern lime light via some publications.
After that 1950s-60s several Indian researcher and intellectual visited these villages and became captivated with the art. It is then, the mass came to know that such a distinct style of painting existed in a small region of India. However, only by 1966 this art of painting was encouraged.
People everywhere need and use some sort of a communicative means to depict themselves, their dreams, schemes, hopes, fears, and love. And this would be impossible without words; but at the same time, words are not sufficient enough to portray these emotions. And thus, people of all cultures, everywhere, have developed supplementary mode of expression, like architecture, sculpture, dance, music and paintings.
An art is popular; only when it can express the sensitivity of people by building up an artistic expression and as well imitate the customs and moral values and reveal the society's psychology from where it is emerging. This reason is self sufficient to justify the fame of the Mithila paintings.
These paintings are a living language. It has its own unique grammar, rules, meaningful icons, motifs and images. They are like a mirror, which reflects the values and morals of the society. It has a vernacular flavor and if observed carefully, one will always find the psychology and belief prevailing in the society. This painting deals with significant and expressive images in its own ways.
Over time, aside from the growing diversity of painting, the subject matter of the paintings has expanded to include ancient epics, domestic, rural, and community life ritual, local legends and tales, local, national, and international politics, as well as the painters' own life histories. Artists of different castes and genders are now borrowing themes and styles from one another. Mithila painting has established extraordinary vitality and become an effervescent and aesthetically powerful tradition.
These styles of painting have been traditionally done by the women of the village around both the villages of Mithila and Madhubani. In primeval times these art work was done only on freshly plastered mud houses but these days it has acquired it position almost on anything starting from glass to cloth, and canvas to paper etc.
The colors used to paint this style of art, were home made natural colors in the beginning. They were extracted from the flowers and plants available like bougainvillea, neem, henna leaves etc. and the juice of the leaves and flowers obtained were mixed with resin and ordinary gum so that the paint could stick to the painting medium. But now colors come in powdered form although black is obtained from the filth deposits by the diya flame and then dissolved in gum.
This form of art was best used in depicting mythological and natural events including Hindu gods and goddesses including Rama
, Shiva, Brahma
etc. They even painted natural objects like sun, moon or other auspicious and religious objects. Usually all empty spaces in the painting were filled with paintings of geometric shapes, flowers, animals etc.
Mithila painting, for centuries, was addressed to gods and goddesses of the Hindu religion, with interwoven component of family's interwoven activities of daily life and the ritual and spiritual life. Mithila painting must have changed and evolved during the centuries, although how the paintings changed between 14th and 20th centuries is not known. They still today dish up the same daily, religious and ritual purposes but the world of painters operating and their understandings, concerns and engagement has developed by many folds.
Although this art did not find wings to travel the world and remained compacted in few specific places, but over the years the tradition has been inherited maintaining the same style and form. This style of painting could even be used to find 3-D imageries! Clearly visible and still alive, these paintings are a breathing expressive mode of communication.