(Last Updated on : 08/08/2013)
and its tenets in Bhagavad Gita
are in sync with the features of the religion that had evolved with the evolution of the Indus Valley Civilisation
. The tenets thrive to be the path of moral discourse for the mortal humans forever. The path of right action
in Bhagavad Gita
comes as a crucial aftermath in the Kurukshetra
battleground, incorporated in the Mahabharata
. Lord Krishna
, Man and the essence of Karma Yoga forms the very base of the concepts of Bhagavad Gita. According to knowledge and experience gained from Bhagavad Gita, earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect and personality comprises the eightfold division of the Lord's Manifested Nature. This is counted as Krishna's inferior Nature; but distinct from this, there exists also another of the Lord's Superior Nature, which comprises the very Life that sustains the universe. The brothers Pandavas and Kauravas
after a prolonged antagonism to seize the Hastinapur
throne had taken recourse to war. In course to begin the historic battle, Arjuna
, the mighty third Pandava was filled with remorse, shame and gloominess that he was compelled to fight his own bloodline, grandfathers and kin. He was thoroughly disappointed to rage a war against them, sitting down, swearing to not crusade any more. Meanwhile, Lord Krishna
, Arjuna's charioteer, had embarked to illuminate on Arjuna's dilemmas, revealing his true, Almighty self, explaining the various ancient philosophies to attain perfection. In this manner, Bhagavad Gita came into existence, clearing the Pandava's dubiousness and preparing him for battle. In this context, Krishna was urged by Arjuna to explain the difference of path of right action and renunciation of action.
Knowledge and Experience
even form the basic and main tenets of Bhagavad Gita
. Knowledge and experience in Bhagavad Gita is governed deep within the principles of Krishna, a cardinal issue to gain supreme sublimity. Shri Krishna thus, went underway to explain to Arjuna how would he recognise Him in His full perfection, practising meditation with his mind devoted to Him and having Him for his own refuge. Krishna also wished to reveal the secret of this knowledge to Arjuna and how it actually could be realised. Once such sublime knowledge has been accomplished, there remains nothing else worth having in the present life. Among thousands of men there exists hardly one who strives towards perfection and even amongst those who gain mystical powers, rarely but one gets to know Lord Krishna in truth.
It is the womb of all being. This is sole truth of life, because Krishna is the one by whom the worlds were created and shall be dissolved within Him again. By Krishna's revelations, one gets to know that there is nothing higher than Him; all is strung upon Him as are rows of pearls upon a thread. Arjuna
is being enlightened that his Lord and charioteer is everywhere, he is in the Fluidity in water, he is the Light in the sun and in the moon; He is the mystic syllable Om in the Vedic scriptures, he is present in the sound in ether, he is the virility in man. Krishna is in actuality omnipresent in the Fragrance of earth, the Brilliance of fire; He is the Life force in all beings and He is also the Austerity of the ascetics. The Lord is the eternal Seed of being; He is the Intelligence of the intelligent, the Splendour of the resplendent. He is the Strength of the strong, Krishna personifies that strength for men who are free from attachment and desire; he is the Desire for righteousness. Teachings of Bhagavad Gita present different views regarding the ultimate reality and the destiny of a man. The Karma Mimarhsa views that by fulfilling the duties one can attain perfection, the way of devotional feeling which holds that by attaining exaltation of the heart, the gladness of freedom can be obtained. The supreme spirit is viewed either as an impersonal absolute or a personal lord. Further, the teachings of Bhagavad Gita
attempt to synthesise the heterogeneous elements and merge them all into a single whole. Because of this reason, it also apparently provides conflicting views about the end of freedom and the means of discipline. Finding that the Gita is not a consistent piece of doctrine, different writers have tried to account for it in different ways. The two significant doctrines namely the theistic and the pantheistic are mixed up with each other, and follow each other, sometimes quite unconnected and sometimes loosely connected.
Teaching of Bhagavad Gita is considered as an application of the Upanishad ideal to the new situations which arose at the time of the Mahabharata
. In adapting the idealism of the Upanishads to a theistically minded people, it attempts to derive a religion from the Upanishad philosophy. Teachings of Bhagavad Gita further show that the reflective spiritual idealism of the Upanishads has room for the living warm religion of personal devotion. The absolute of the Upanishads is revealed as the fulfilment of the reflective and the emotional demands of human nature.
in Bhagavad Gita
was that deciding topic that had egged on Arjuna
to fight valiantly in the battle of Kurukshetra
. It thrives to be one of the basic tenets of Bhagavad Gita. His each reaction of angst, desperation, melancholy to combat against his own blood was cleared off by Lord Krishna
through his detailed description of life at large. Mahabharata
had in fact taken a dramatic course of action after Arjuna was enlightened in Krishna, the Almighty's sermons. Arjuna's shunning of weapons for such a cause can verily be shared with every subsequent generations, including the vulnerability. The mighty Pandava's hopeless situation was quite akin to renunciation from life and its functions. Hence, Krishna, Arjuna's charioteer and clever companion demonstrated to his beloved the true essence of being. Renunciation according to Bhagavad Gita was thus explicated by the Lord-God Himself.
Concept of ultimate reality
in Bhagavad Gita is defined, as in the Upanishads, by two ways of analysis, first of the objective and second of the subjective. Bhagavad Gita does not provide any arguments in support of the metaphysical position. Further, Upanishads confirm the reality of Supreme Brahman one without determinations or attributes. The objective analysis proceeds on the basis of a distinction between substance and shadow, the immortal and the perishable, the aksara and the ksara. There are these two beings in the world, the destructible ksara and the indestructible aksara.
Bhagavad Gita declares that the Supreme Being is called the highest self, Paramatman. The author of Gita first distinguishes the permanent background of the world from its transitory manifestations, the Prakirti from its changes. This supreme spirit is the true immortal, the abode of the eternal. It is also quite possible to interpret the conception of Purusottama as that of the concrete personality which is superior to the false abstractions of the infinite and the finite. The only difficulty is that Brahman, declared to be the basis of the finite, cannot be looked upon as a mere abstraction. Bhagavad Gita distinguishes between the finite or the impermanent, and the infinite or the permanent. Whatever is limited or transitory is not real. All becoming is an untenable contradiction.
Since the things of the world are struggling to become something else, they are not real. The individual self is ever unsatisfied with it and is struggling always to become something else. In its consciousness of limitation, there is a sense of the infinite. The empirical mind is ever changing. About the nature of the supreme self, the account presented in Bhagavad Gita is rather puzzling. The individual form may change, but the essence is not destroyed. Until perfection is obtained, individuality persists. However repeatedly the mortal frame is destroyed, the inner individuality preserves its identity and takes on a new form. It is by this affirmation of the soul, by this justification of the intuition of the Upanishads, that the Atman, or the pure subject, remains unaffected.
According to the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna is the 'bijam mam sarvabhutdaam', which means 'Eternal seed of all beings'. He is described as the source, sustainer, and destroyer of the world, jagat. Lord Krishna is said to be the imperishable, aksara, and knower of the field, kshetragna or the beings in the world of everyday living. The Gita says that the Lord is the Perfect man, purusottama and pervades all things, supports all things and 'same to all beings' in Sanskrit it is 'samoham sarvabhutesu'.
The Bhagavad Gita refers the Lord Krishna as the father to the creation and resides in all souls which in Sanskrit are written like this 'pita hum asya jagato'. He is said to be the ultimate goal of all living beings, who provides moksa to women, sudras and vaisyas. It is said that Lord Krishna praises those who see equally a cow, a brahmana, a dog and a dog-eater and do not behave badly with them. Hence He is described as the goal, supporter, lord, witness, abode, refuge, friend, origin, dissolution, substratum, storehouse and immutable seed.
According to the Bhagavad Gita, man is a mere instrument, 'nimitta-matra'. The theory of divine pre-destination has been affirmed here. The Gita has discussed about three gunas (qualities) that cause every man's way of life. These gunas are
* Sattva (goodness): purity, reason, knowledge
* Rajas (passion): desire, active, restless
* Tamas (dullness): ignorance, laziness, reverse
These three qualities convey one's existence and thought. These qualities remain in human nature like strings in a twisted rope. The attitude of a person is tempered by the dominant quality whenever one of them prevails over the other two. According to the Bhagavad Gita, the ideal man is the 'sthitapragna' (Man of steadfast-wisdom). The man with self-control and who can withdraw his senses from the worldly objects is referred as the wise man, the 'sthitaragfia'. This man is very disciplined and free from desire and pleasure, equally observes the gold and lump of the earth, neither rejoice nor laments, look for the welfare of all. This type of man neither hates nor desires, but remains neutral. He is never overflowed by any kind of desire, just as the sea does not overflow though all rivers flow into it. As per the Gita, this man with the 'Sattva' quality holds everything equal and such a man is firm, fearless, self-restrained and dearer to God. The word courage is also associated with this type of man.
are some of the tenets of Bhagavad Gita.