The Cotigao sanctuary of Goa has a thick cover of vegetation. There are basically three types of vegetation that is found over here that includes Moist Deciduous Forests - the prevalent forest type, Semi-Evergreen Forests and Evergreen Forests. The lush and thick vegetation growth provides natural shelter to a plethora of animal and bird species. These species include sloth bears, deer, wild boars, panthers, laughing hyenas and Indian Bisons. There also a number of bird species here, the most popular ones to be spotted are Rufus Woodpecker, white-eyed eagle, Malabar crested eagle, White bellied woodpecker, etc. Apart from these animals and birds, there are also a vast number of reptiles that include poisonous and non-poisonous snakes.
The Cotigao sanctuary has eight well laid out nature trails covering it. These nature trails vary from a range of 500 metres to 5 kilometres. There are six watchtowers in the sanctuary. An ecotourism complex at the entrance of the sanctuary welcomes the visitors. The complex houses the nature interpretation centre, cottages, toilets, library, reception area and rescue centre, canteen and Range Forest Office. The sanctuary has been proclaimed as a plastic-free zone by the State Government. The Cotigao sanctuary is surrounded by the tribal (Velip) settlements. There is also a rubber plantation within the sanctuary boundary limits where the processing of rubber is demonstrated.
In addition to the Velip tribal communities, the ancient Jeevottam Partagal Math, known for their Vedic studies, make their home in the forests like the Kunbi. Consequently the Cotigao sanctuary is perfect for the nature lover who wants to get down to the basics of naturalism by camping out with the wildlife and in amongst the vegetation.