(Last Updated on : 09-02-2018)
Stone Sculpture is a folk art
that has been given a different colour by the Indian tribes
. Tribal art
of sculpture is representative and symbolic in nature. The combination of form and content gave this representational art an emotional value and a pure formal aesthetic effect.
Styles of Stone Sculptures
Classical Stone Sculpture works were based on Indian mythology
. The main centres of Kalchuri sculptures were, Niwas, Binjholi, Kukaramath, Dhanoli and many more to be mentioned. Even today, a large number of stone sculptures of classical period are seen. Sculptures of Lord Vishnu
, Shambhu, Lord Ganesha
, Goddess Durga
are seen in temples
. Some of these sculptures are kept in museum
An analysis of the sculptural qualities indicate that the quality of relief work is inferior to that of the classical sculptures and most of the patterns and motifs carved in stones have primitive features. There has been a gradual decrease of classical work in the tribal art.
Patterns in Stone Sculpture
The patterns found are angular or square and ornamented with flower
pot designs, leaf patterns and geometrical patterns. The symbolically represented pattern of five Naga
heads is also a common subject of these sculptures. Primitive patterns are used frequently. Huge architectural decoration was not common in all tribal sculptures. One can see a mixture of classical sculpture and primitive motifs among the tribal stone sculptures.
Materials Used for Stone Sculptures
The tribals have developed a very high degree of creativity in art. Tribal sculptures are executed on stone, wood, iron and clay. For carving they have chosen stone and wood. The stone used for the sculpture is rough and inferior. Implements used are sharp angled boulders, adze and chisel. Most of the stones required for their sculptures are locally available. It is rough. Few of their sculptures are made of marble also.
Religious Themes of Stone Sculpture
Stone sculptures of the tribals are dedicated to their deities. There are many Gods
who have no images. Their depiction is either symbolical or abstract. There are stone sculptures of certain Hindu deities
such as Lord Shiva
, Goddess Durga
, Lord Hanuman
, Lord Ganesha
and many others are largely scattered in many tribal areas. These deities have received a tribal impact. Amongst the animal
, bull, horse and serpent
are common and either they are associated with some idol or have separate images of their own.