(Last Updated on : 28-05-2015)
Badhara is a climbing shrub
with yellowish-white bark which is found mainly in the scrub forests in India. Badhara is a fast-growing deciduous tree, occurring naturally throughout greater part of India at altitudes up to 1,500 meters. In India, Badhara occurs extensively from the eastwards in the sub-Himalayan
tracts, common throughout Assam
and adjoining areas of northern West Bengal, also in southern Bihar
, sporadically found in western and southern India and planted elsewhere on a large scale. Badhara most commonly occurs in West Bengal
forests in mixed forests.
Different Names of Badhara
It botanical name is "Gmelina Asiatica L"
. There are various other names by which it is called in India are "Nag-phul"
, "Cherkumizhi" and "Kumilamaram
" in Malayalam
, "Gombhari", "Nondano"
, "Biddari", "Kasmari", "Vikarini"
, "Adavigummadi", "Chirugummudu", "Challagumudu", "Gummadi", "Chirunelli"
, "Gulada Mara"
, "Kumalai", "Kumil", "Kadambal", "Kumizhaniaram", "Nilakkumil"
. Badhara belongs to the "Verbenaceae"
Characteristic Features of Badhara
Badhara is a medium-sized deciduous tree. It is a large, spiny, straggling or sometimes climbing shrub with yellowish-white bark and rigid, horizontal branchlets, often shortened and spinous at the ends. The leaves of this shrub are highly variable, 1 to 9.5 cm long and 1.3 to 6 cm wide, ovate or elliptic, sometimes irregularly lobulate, lower surface coated with minute, round glands, apex acute or obtuse, base acute or rounded; petioles are 0.5 to 3 cm long. The flowers of Badhara are large, nodding, bright yellow, borne in terminal, densely pubescent racemes; calyx are 4 to 5 mm long, cup-shaped, pubescent, clothed with round, flattened glands, 4 lobes, minute, triangular; corolla is 2 lipped, 4.5 cm long, finely pubescent outside, tube narrow below, curved, inflated above, 4 lobes, ovate. The fruits of this Indian Medicinal Plant
are ovoid or obovoid, 2 cm long, yellow when ripe and bear 1 or 2 seeds.
Medicinal Values of Badhara
, it has been observed that Badhara fruit is acrid, sour, bitter, sweet, cooling, diuretic tonic, aphrodisiac, alternative astringent to the bowels, promote growth of hairs, useful in vata, thirst, anaemia
, ulcers and vaginal discharge. The plant is recommended in combination with other drugs for the treatment of snakebite and scorpion sting. In snakebite a decoction of the root and bark is given internally.
The root is aromatic, mucilaginous, alterative, demulcent and astringent. It is used chiefly as a demulcent to treat catarrh of the bladder, but also in treating gonorrhoea
, rheumatism and also acts as a blood purifier. In Unani medicine in India
, the root is regarded as aphrodisiac and expectorant and is also used to give relief from joint pains. Among the tribal inhabitants of southern Andhra Pradesh
, a paste of the roots mixed with cloves is used to relieve toothache
. The leaves and young shoots of this medicinal plant contain thick, viscid, mucilage that is used to treat cough
and relieve painful urination. In Siddha
, the roots and mucilaginous leaves are used to treat digestive disorders, diarrhoea
, cystitis and oliguria. The fruit is applied to the forehead to relieve burning sensations in the eyes and to cool the body. Flowers are astringent; useful in leprosy and blood diseases.