(Last Updated on : 05/03/2016)
Nalanda District is one of the most important districts in Bihar
. Bihar Sharif town is the district headquarters. Nalanda
is famous all over the world for the ancient International Monastic University established in 5th century BC, which taught Vedas
, logic, grammar, medicine, meta-physics, prose composition and rhetoric. Nalanda district is popularly known as Bihar Sharif. Phalgu River
and Mohane River flows through this district.
History of Nalanda District
History of Nalanda District goes back to the days of Lord Buddha
and Lord Mahavira
in the 6th Century BC. The town was home to Nalanda Mahavihara, a monastic university of international repute. There are many versions of what the term Nalanda means. Both Buddha and Mahavira often stayed at Nalanda during the rainy season. Ancient Buddhist sources say that Ashoka
, Mauryan Emperor built a temple at Nalanda. However, excavations have not revealed anything to suggest that the site was occupied before the Gupta period (5th Century AD), the earliest findings being a copper plate of Samudragupta
and a coin of Kumaragupta (414-455 AD). Modern District of Nalanda with headquarters at Bihar Sharif was established on November 9th, 1972. Earlier it was Bihar Sharif sub-division of Patna District
Geography of Nalanda District
Nalanda district occupies an area of 2,355 square Phalgu River, Mohane River, Jirayan River and Kumbhari River flow through it. The district is a part of Patna Division.
Demography of Nalanda District
According to Census in 2011, Nalanda District had a population of 2,872,523 of which male and female were 1,495,577 and 1,376,946 respectively. The population of Nalanda District constituted 2.77 percent of total population of Bihar. The average literacy rate of Nalanda in 2011 was 66.41 compared to 53.19 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 77.11 and 54.76 respectively. The total literates in Nalanda District were 1,574,818 of which male and female were 952,970 and 621,848 respectively.
Economy of Nalanda District
Agriculture is the main source of occupation of majority of the people in Nalanda district. Thus, economy is mainly agrarian in character. The farmers mainly grow paddy, potato, and onion. Few people of the district are involved in handloom weaving.
Tourism in Nalanda District
, Nalanda and Pawapuri
are most important tourist destinations of Nalanda District. Tourism in this district includes visits to several historical places. Some of the major attractions are Nalanda University, Griddhkuta peak in Rajgir, Pawapuri that is known for Mahaparinirvan of Lord Mahavira. Malmas mela of Rajgir attracts thousands of people from all over the country. Similarly Brahma kund and Makdum kund draw a lot of tourists every year. On the other side, Nalanda ruins, Museum, Hieun-Tsang
memorial are major centres of attraction. Every year, the district administration and tourism department in the first week of December organize the Rajgir Dance Festival
. Pant wild life sanctuary is the home of rich flora and fauna. It is situated in Rajgir. Rajgir was in ancient times the capital of Magadhan Empire. Rajgir Wildlife Sanctuary
is one of the prime tourist destinations in Nalanada District other than historical ruins.