(Last Updated on : 12-04-2019)
Tribal Languages of Jharkhand
are either the scheduled languages
belonging to the Indo-Aryan family
or their dialects or those of the Munda
and the Dravidian language
families. There are several tribal languages
of Jharkhand, among which certain are dominating the region. Even in recent times, to conciliate the tribal people
of the state
, Jharkhand government has made acquaintance with 4 prime tribal languages obligatory for its government
executives. And the four tribal languages are Kurukh, Mundari, Santali and Ho. The languages are discussed in brief below:
Kurukh is a Dravidian language and it is spoken by almost two million Oraon
and Kisan tribal people of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh
and West Bengal
. Some Kurukh speakers are also residing in South India
. This language, related to Brahui
and Malto, has been enlisted in UNESCOs list of endangered languages.
Mundari is a Munda language
of the Austro-Asiatic language family spoken by the Munda people of eastern India
; predominantly Assam
and Jharkhand. It is closely related to Santali language. Mundari Bani, a script
to write Mundari, was invented by Rohidas Singh Nag. It has also been written in Devanagari, Odia
and Latin languages.
Santali is the most widely-spoken language of the Munda subfamily of the Austro-Asiatic languages. It is spoken mainly in the Indian states of Assam, Bihar
, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Mizoram
, Odisha, Tripura
and West Bengal. It is a recognized regional language of India
per the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution
. Earlier, Santali was mainly an oral language until Ol Chiki was developed by Pandit Raghunath Murmu in 1925. Ol Chiki is alphabetic, which shares none of the syllabic properties of the other Indic scripts; it is widely used to write Santali in modern days.
Ho is a Munda language of the Austro-Asiatic language family spoken primarily in India by about 1.04 million people. This old tribal language is spoken by the Ho, Munda, Kolha and Kol tribal communities
of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal. Ho is written in Warang Citi, Devanagari, Latin, Oriya, Telugu
and Bengali scripts; sometimes native speakers prefer to use the Ho script as well.