Pradhana is a Sanskrit word, which is derived from 'pra' and 'dha'. This means that which is first placed or primal position, in a philosophical sequence of cosmic emanations. Pradhana is an undifferentiated cosmic substance that which is the root of and first originate of Prakriti.
Some of the Indian philosophical schools use 'akasa' as a synonym of pradhana, and one might even say that pradhana is mulaprakriti, taken in the literal sense of root of Prakriti. In a true sense, pradhana is mulaprakriti in the latter's lower ranges. Therefore pradhana in its lower ranges becomes 'akasa'. Philosophically it is the first filmy appearance of root-matter "placed before" or around Brahman. It is spoken of as the cosmic veil of Brahman, the First Logos.
Pradhana is that which is the not evolved cause is insistently called by the most eminent sages, pradhana, original base, which is subtitle Prakriti that which is eternal, and which at once is, and is not, a mere process.
Pradhana comprehends both causes and effects. It is durable, self-sustained, undecaying, the mother of the world without beginning and that into which all that is produced is resolved. Pradhana, when unmodified, is according to the Sankhyas and Puranas, nothing more than the three qualities in equilibrium, or goodness, foulness, and darkness neutralizing each other.
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